FUNDAMENTALS OF HYDRAULICS
Learning outcomes of the course unit
Knowledge and understanding:
Students will acquire the fundamentals of Hydraulics and will develop the ability of analyzing critically the physical reason of various phenomena involving fluids in motion or at rest in natural or artificial systems. The investigation method is based on mathematical modeling.
Applying knowledge and understanding:
Students will develop the ability to apply the fundamentals of Hydraulics to basic problems of Civil and Environmental Engineering.
Students will acquire basic tools and will develop a critical ability useful for analyzing and autonomously facing elementary problems of Hydraulics.
At the end of the course, students will be able to present the concepts learned with an adequate fluency and a good speaking ability, as well as by means of tables and charts.
At the end of the course, students will have strengthened basic knowledge and skills in Hydraulics, which will allow them to extend the theoretical and technical knowledge for hydraulic structure design and analysis.
Fundamentals of Mathematics and Physics.
Course contents summary
The course provides students with fundamentals of Hydraulics.
Students shall be able to solve the main technical problems related with hydrostatics and with pressurized and free-surface flows.
Numerical exercises on the topics listed in the program will be developed.
Definitions and fluid properties. The concept of a fluid. The fluid as a continuum. Physical properties of fluids. The stress concept. The stress state.
Fundamentals of fluid statics. Pressure distribution in a fluid at rest. Statics of incompressible fluids. Absolute and relative pressure. Pressure head and piezometric head. Pressure measurement. Hydrostatic forces on plane and curved surfaces. Archimedes’ principle. Buoyancy.
Fundamental of fluid dynamics. Basic physical laws: the mass conservation equation and the linear momentum equation. Frictionless flow. Bernoulli’s theorem. Technical applications of the Bernoulli theorem. Flow through orifices. Regimes of flows. Governing flow equations.
Pipe flow. Uniform flow in pipes. Continuous losses in pipes. Resistance laws. Steady flow in pipes. The Venturi meter. Minor losses in pipes. Sub-atmospheric flows. Energy exchange between fluid and hydraulic machinery: pumps and turbines. Multi-pipe systems. Types of pipe flow problems: verification and design problems.
Open-channel flow. Uniform flow. Chézy’s formula. Specific energy. The critical state. Subcritical and supercritical flows. Steady gradually varied flow equations in prismatic channels. Classification of flow profiles. The hydraulic jump. Examples of longitudinal flow profiles. Computation of longitudinal flow profiles. Weirs.
Cengel Y.A., Cimbala J.M. (2015). Meccanica dei fluidi. III Ed. McGraw-Hill, Milano.
Citrini D., Noseda G. (1987). Idraulica. II Ed. CEA, Milano.
Alfonsi G., Orsi E. (1984). Problemi di Idraulica e Meccanica dei fluidi. CEA, Milano.
The course is structured in:
- frontal lessons on the blackboard (with the projection of slides) for the presentation of theoretical concepts;
- practical exercises for the analysis of numerical problems.
Assessment methods and criteria
The exam consists of a written part followed by an oral part. It is necessary to pass the written test to be admitted to the oral exam. The two parts of the exam must be passed successfully in the same exam session.
Written examination (50% of the final assessment) consisting of 3 exercises (knowledge/proficiency);
Oral examination (50% of the final assessment) including:
- Theory questions (knowledge);
- Applications of theory and exercises (proficiency/making judgments);
- Speaking ability (communication skills).
Lecture slides and additional educational material are downloadable from the webpage of the course on the University web site: elly.dia.unipr.it.
Attendance to lectures is highly recommended.