# PHYSICS

## Learning outcomes of the course unit

D1 - KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING

To know the basics of each of the 7 macrotopics:i Physical units and vectorial calculations; ii. Mechanics; iii. Mechanics of fluids; iv. Waves and Acoustics; v. Thermology and thermodynamics; vi. Electromagnetism; vii. Light and Optics

To memorize essential formulae, grouped in a document composed by the teacher; to understand the text of a problem and of theoretical questions;

D2 - APPLYING KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING

To correctly employ formulae and concepts; to be able to autonomously solve physics problems, aplied to the proposed topics; to be able to understand the text of a problem and of theoretical questions;

D3 - MAKING JUDGMENTS

To be able to analyze physics problems and evaluate the simplest and most time saving way to solve it; to know how to answer questions on the physics programme in a critical way

D4 - COMMUNICATION SKILLS

To be able to answer questions in a synthetic and rigorous way; to be able to express in an immediately understandable language concepts and comments to multiple answer questions; to ask the teacher for help when needed;

D5 - LEARNING SKILLS

To be able to identify the best studying methodology and to change his/her approach to face problems and questions of physics, in case the results are not those desired; to be able to judge if basic mathematics, needed to solve physics problems, is sufficiently mastered.

## Prerequisites

no one

## Course contents summary

1. PHYSICAL UNITS AND VECTORIAL CALCULATIONS.

2. MECHANICS Introduction to newtonian mechanics. The three laws of Newton. Motions and dynamics. Energy, work, power. Conservation principles.

3. MECHANICS OF FLUIDS. Fluidomechanics: statics and dynamics od ideal fluids. Real fluids mechanics.

4. WAVES AND ACOUSTICS. Oscillations and waves. Periodic motions. Refraction, reflexion, diffraction. Resonance. Acoustics.

5. THERMOLOGY AND THERMODYNAMICS. Heat and temperature. Principle of thermodynamics. Biological Thermodynamics

6. ELETTROMAGNETISM. Introduction to electromagnetism. Electric and magnetic forces and their laws. Electric and magnetic fields. Charge movements and induction. Bioelectrical potentials.

7. LIGHT AND OPTICS. Light-matter interaction. Polarization. Geometric optics. Physical optics. Optical instrumentations and microscopes. Biological effects of radiations.

## Course contents

1. PHYSICAL UNITS AND CALCULATIONS. Units of SI. Measurements and errors. Basics of mathemathics. Trignometry. Vectors and operations. Differential calculus in physics.

2. MECHANICS Newtonian mechanics and the three laws. Motions and dynamics. The three laws of Newton. Motions with constant velocity. Acclerated motions, linear and in two dimensions. Circular motions. Introduction to work and energy concepts. Energy and its conservation. Kinetic and potential energy and theorems. Hooke´s law. Conservative systems. Gravitational energy and the concept of field. Power. Momentum and its conservation. Angular momentum and its conservation

3. MECHANICS OF FLUIDS. Fluidomechanics I: the dynamics. Continuity equation and Bernoulli´s law. Fluidomechanics I: the statics. Stevino´s law Legge di Stevino, Archimede´s principle, Stevino´s law. Real fluids mechanics.

4. WAVES AND ACOUSTICS. Oscillations and waves. Periodic motions and waves. Refraction, reflexion, diffraction. Resonance. Stationary waves. Sound waves and acoustics. Beats and Doppler´s effect. Infrasound and ultrasound.

5. THERMOLOGY AND THERMODYNAMICS. Heat and temperature. Heat, work and the I principle of thermodynamics. II principle and entropy. Spontaneous processes. Applications of the II principle. Carnot ´s cycle. Biological Thermodynamics

6. ELETTROMAGNETISM. Coulomb´s force. Electric field, fiel´d lines. Calculation of the electric field. Flux and the Gauss´ theorem. Coulomb´s theorem. Moving charges. Potential electric energy and electric potential. Capacitors. Electric currents, Ohm´s laws and resistance. The circuits and the electric power. Kirchoff´s laws. The magnetic field. Magnetic force and its consequences. Magnetic field and induction. Maxwell´s laws. The electromagnetic field. Bioelectrical potentials.

7. LIGHT AND OPTICS. Light-matter interaction. Polarization. Geometric optics. Physical optics. Optical instrumentations and microscopes. How the human eye works. Dosimetry.

## Recommended readings

Alan Giambattista, Betty McCarthy Richardson, Robert C. Richardson- FISICA GENERALE Principi ed Applicazioni- McGraw-Hill edizioni

As alternative: any General Physics Book

Teacher's slides

## Teaching methods

Lessons will be given on-line via the Teams platform. Teaching activities will be carried out via slide-based lessons and written exercises. Slides will be uploaded on the Elly platform once a week. To download the slides it is necessary that students subscribes to the platform. Slides are considered integral part of the teaching material. Teaching methods and exam modalities could change, due to the SARS-CoV-2 emergency. Variations will be communicated in due time.

## Assessment methods and criteria

Written examination, built of 5 exercises, two of which are theoretical questions. Each of the five exercises is worth 6 points, when correctly solved. Also partial solutions will be evaluated. Teaching methods and exam modalities could change, due to the SARS-CoV-2 emergency. Variations will be communicated in due time.

## Other informations

Students will be received after agreement via telephone (0521-905293) or e-mail: aba.losi@unipr.it, preferentially via the Teams platform.