DOMESTIC ANIMALS ANATOMY, EMBRIOLOGY AND HISTOLOGY
Learning outcomes of the course unit
At the end of the training activity, the student should have acquired knowledge and skills related to cytology, histology, embryology, general anatomy and anatomy of animals of zootechnical interest that may be useful to the L38 graduate.
In particular, the student should be able to:
D1 - KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING;
know, interpret and understand the morpho-structural organization of animals of zootechnical interest.
D2 – APPLYIN KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING;
Know how to apply the acquired knowledge to connect the various topics discussed, to make comparisons, to carry out checks, to assist in the resolution of diagnostic problems and to deal with profitable studies of physiology, pathology, reproduction, biomechanics and animal welfare, conditions of breeding, as well as characteristics and quality of the animals according to their production.
D3 – MAKING JUDGEMENT;
a) describe and interpret autonomously the microscopic (cytological and histological) images and the morpho-structural characteristics of organs, apparatuses and systems of animal of zootechnical interest
D4 – COMMUNICATION SKILLS;
a) Describe, orally, in a clear, exhaustive and synthetic way, using appropriate technical terminology, macroscopic images, organs, apparatuses and systems.
b) know how to communicate with the professional figures that he/she will meet in the operating environment of his/her profession, using an appropriate language in relation to the context and the interlocutor
D5 – LEARNING SKILLS.
a) independently consult and comprehend scientific texts other than textbooks,
b) carry out a bibliographic research on specific topics related to the discipline,
c) Possess the mastery of the subject sufficiently wide to allow him/her to study and understand the related and characterizing subjects of the study course in SZTPA.
Specific knowledge provided by the entrance test or alternatively, recovery of educational debt in Biology
Course contents summary
The course includes different parts.
- The first part is dedicated to cytology, histology and embryology (CEI). Regarding cytology, the course recalls knowledge about the structure of the eukaryotic cell. Concerning embryology, it addresses topics ranging from gametogenesis to the formation of the three germ layers, moreover provides knowledge in relation to fetal membranes, placentation in farm animals. Concerning Histology, the course provides knowledge in relation to the morpho-structural and functional characteristics of Epithelial tissue, Connective tissue, Muscular tissue, Nervous tissue. Moreover it provides basic concepts on the development and the anatomy of the nervous system.
- The second part of the course, dedicated to osteo-arthro-myology (OAM), gives basic concepts on anatomy and terminology to be used. Hence, the main parts of animal body are defined and knowledge about moprho-structural aspects of the locomotor apparatus is given.
The third part of the course provides knowledge on the anatomy (SPLACNOLOGY) of endocrine organs, digestive tract of monogastric and ruminants, the uro-genital male and female apparatus. Finally, this part provides general knowledge on the cardiovascular apparatus, respiratory apparatus, common integument, with particular attention to morphostructural aspects of the ungulates’ hoof and udder.
Morpho-structural aspects of eukaryotic cells.
Cellular membrane and nuclear envelope.
Processes of embryonic development of farm animals
Placenta and fetal membranes.
Structural and ultrastructural characteristics of animal tissues
- Epithelial tissue:
• Surface epithelia,
• Sensory epithelia,
• Specialized epithelia,
• Glandular epithelia.
- Connective tissues:
• Connective tissues proper,
• Specialized connective tissues,
• Cartilage tissue,
• Bone tissue,
- Muscle tissue:
• Smooth muscle tissue,
• Striated muscle tissue
• Cardiac striated muscle.
- Nerve tissue:
• Neurons and glial cells.
General anatomical terminology and main parts of the body.
General organization of the organs
• Mrpho-structural aspects of bone and contractile tissues
• Mrpho-structural aspects of the alimentary canal and glands in monogastric and ruminant
• Morpho-structural aspects of male and female uro-genital organs
• Kidneys and urinary tract
• gonads and genital tract.
Endocrine glands: morpho-structural aspects
Common Integument: aspects
• morphological and structural aspects of udder and nails
• Morpho-structural general aspects.
Nervous system: general organization of the nervous system
Observation, description and study of dry anatomical praparations and demountable models.
Study of the main apparatuses and organs through the use of an anatomical software
BORTOLAMI R., CALLEGARI E., CLAVENZANI P., BEGHELLI V., Anatomia e fisiologia degli animali domestici, Edagricole, Bologna
The course includes 6 ECTS of didactic activity divided into theoretical lessons and theoretical-practical lessons.
The hours of theoretical lessons will cover topics of cytology, embryology, histology and anatomy. In particular, knowledge will be imparted on the structure of the eukaryotic cell on the organization and classification of the 4 tissues, on gametogenesis, on fertilization, on segmentation, on gastrulation, on the structure of the placenta of animals of zootechnical interest, on anatomical generalities, the terminology to be used, defined the main parts of the body; the part of osteo-arthro-myology will be addressed also making use of the direct observation of anatomical dry preparations. The knowledge relating to the macro- and microscopic anatomy of the endocrine organs and mammals, of the digestive system of monogastric and ruminant animals, of the male and female urogenital apparatus will therefore be deepened. Generality they will be provided on the cardio-circulatory system, on the respiratory system and on the integumentary system.
Theoretical-practical lessons will be addressed giving students the opportunity to directly observe some dry anatomical preparations and some removable models. Students will also be able to use anatomical software that allows you to view virtual 3D images of the various systems and systems (individually or in any combination) of the different species of animals. All organs can be viewed from any angle and at various zoom levels.
Assessment methods and criteria
The assessment of the achievement of the objectives of the course consists of an writtenl examination in which the student must answer 3 questions regarding the contents of the course (CEI, OAM, and SPLACNOOLOGY). An oral discussione will follow on the answers provided in the written test.It will be verified if the student has achieved the goal of knowledge and understanding of the content and the ability to apply the acquired knowledge. rious tissues and organs, by the analysis of microscopic.
In case of restrictions for reasons of public health the methods of assessment could be changed and adapted to on line modality.
Votes shall be cast out of thirty and communicated immediately at the end of the test.
To the students with diagnosis of specific learning disability (DSA) certified under law n. 170/2010, proper specific support will be provided.