MICROBIOLOGY AND IMMUNOLOGY
Learning outcomes of the course unit
Microbiology course is aimed at:
a. Knowledge and understanding: the course aims to provide students with basic knowledge on the interpretation models to assess, with reference to the different animal species, the major infectious diseases, especially those with zoonotic impact. Students are presented also the rationale behind the determination processes and communication of results in a system involving the following figures: pet owner, breeder, veterinary AUSL, IZS operator.
b. Applying Knowledge and understanding: the student will be able to manage the process necessary to frame a microorganism taxonomically (both clinical origin as well as from food substrate); and then proceed to identify the necessary strategies in the therapeutic field but especially for prevention and control.
c. Making judgments: students can deal profitably logical interpretation of the dynamics that rule the etiology of different pathogens (bacterial, viral or mycetic), including through the acquisition of an interpretative model suitable to interface with the different entities involved in health care system.
d. Communication skills: at the end of the course students will have acquired the capacity for problem analysis (problem solving skills), interpersonal skills and ability to express in writing and orally in an effective and appropriate language to different stakeholders (owners of animals, breeders, veterinary AUSL, responsible IZS units). The student will be able to express their conclusions on studies and analysis of health issues analyzed, explaining in
clearly their reasoning and their own lines of action (therapy, vaccination plans, preventive measures).
e. Learning skills: the course aims to enhance learning of student using a correct approach to individual study and development of guided exercises in class (during which the student has to make operational decisions and results) management.
Course contents summary
The course is structured in two parts the first of which concerns the bacteriological topics (bacterial and mycetic structure, genetics, physiology / biochemistry) , and the second one focused on immunology (basic concepts, cellular elements involved; serological tests , vaccination ) and the viral world.
Shape, dimensions, spatial arrangement. Structure of the cell
prokaryotic: nucleus, cytoplasm, cytoplasmic inclusions, ribosomes,
plasmids, cytoplasmic membrane, mesosome, bacterial cell wall, flagella,
organs of adhesion capsule antigens. Protoplasts, spheroplasts, forms L. The
Spore: sporogenesis, the structure of the spore, germination, biological meaning.
Nutrition, metabolism and bacterial cultivation strategies defined on the
the basis of different intrinsic needs. Reproduction: the growth curve.
Criteria for bacterial identification and taxonomy.
Bacterial genetics: mutations, recombinations (transformation,
conjugation and transduction), converting phage, plasmids and R one, islands
pathogenicity. Biotechnology: Concepts and basic techniques of engineering
genetics. Concept of pathogenicity: virulence, infectivity, receptivity,
infection, disease, concept of healthy carrier; pathogenicity factors.
Molecular techniques applied to microbiological diagnostics. Genesis and
evolution of an infectious disease: primary lesion, dissemination,
Understanding the disinfection. Antibiotics: classes and mechanism
General characteristics of fungus. Pathogenic action of fungus and main
pathogens of interest in veterinary medicine. Immune response to
fungal infections. Strategy to fight fungal infection.
Chemical composition, size, structure of the virus symmetry cubicaelicoidale,
complex, capsid, capsomeres, peplos, peplomers.
Bacteriophages. Interaction of viruses with eukaryotic cells:
adsorption, penetration, replication, maturation, liberation.
Cultivation: tissue culture, cell culture, animal receptive, eggs
T itolazionedeivirus: metodifisici, biologiciemediante
Taxonomic Characteristics of DNA viruses and RNA. Infectious agents
Nonspecific mechanisms of protection of the skin and mucous membranes. Phagocytosis:
phagocytes professionals and occasional osponine, the dynamics of phagocytosis,
fate of phagocytosed microorganisms, the consequences of survival.
Antigens: digit value physico-chemical determinants or epitopes, haptens and carriers,
immunogenicity, antigen-dipedenti thymus-independent and thymus.
Humoral immunity: primary and secondary lymphoid organs, classes of lymphocytes,
production of antibodies, structures and classes of immunoglobulins,
Local immunity and cell-mediated. Primary and secondary response,
memory, recirculation of lymphocytes. Active immunity: infection,
vaccination, vaccine types, routes of administration. Immunity
passive transplacental, colostrum, from-immune sera. Complement:
components, via classical, alternative and properdinica activation,
Interferons: classes, production, biological significance in antiviral defense
and in the immune response delayed. Hypersensitivity. Reactions
Serologic: precipitation, agglutination, hemagglutination and its
inhibition, neutralization, fissazionedelcompleme nto,
immunofluorescence, tecnicheradioimmunolo gichee
immunoassays. Characterization of gut microbiota and its reflexes on the immunological and sanitary status of animal population.
Bacterial cell wall and the Gram stain. Architecture of the spore and
staining Shaeffer and Fulton. Structure of the capsule and color
by ink. Various biochemical and enzymatic tests (oxidase,
catalase, urease, TSI, lysine and ornithine decarboxylase, esculinasi, reduction
nitrates, chemical Gram). Rapid slide agglutination and latex.
Identification system API. Various techniques of sowing of liquid medium and
solid. Susceptibility and MIC. Structure and coloration of Saccharomyces
cerivisiae. Microscopic examination of Malassezia. Cultivation of
virus in cell culture and embryonated eggs. Evaluation of different effects
cytopathic. Titration of virus using hemagglutination and method
Poli G., Dall’Ara P., Martino P.A. Microbiologia e immunologia veterinaria, Edra, 2017
Abbas A.K., Lichtman A.H., Pillai S., Immunologia cellulare e molecolare, Elsevier, Milano, 2010.
Brock, Biologia dei microrganismi, Volumi 1, 2 e 3, Pearson Education Italia, Milano, 2012
The entire didactic activity involves the use of slide (the material will be made available at the beginning of the online course). We will provide workshops focused on animal health emergencies present on the Italian territory.
The practical activity will be carried out in the laboratory for bacteriology and will follow and complete the material covered in the classroom .
Assessment methods and criteria
During the course, students would have the opportunity to make a sort of auto-valuation. It will be performed in the classroom, with closed-loop, cryptographic responses delivered via computer tools (tablets or smartphones). A collective correction will take place in order to identify any critical nodes in the achievement of the learning objectives, in time to review their preparation before the summative evaluation (as indicated in date-exam programmed).
The student will be able to manage the process necessary to
The student will be able to independently manage the process required to frame a microorganism taxonomically (both of clinical origin or from a food substrate). The check mode takes the form of an oral examination that involves three stages of sequential verification: 1 ) Bacteriology ; 2 ) immunology ; 3 ) virology .
Pre-requisite to proceed with the verification is the perfect knowledge of issues related to point one.
In exceptional cases and, at the express request of the student, it will be assessed in writing .
With reference to students with specific learning disabilities (with reference to the Ministerial Decree of 12 July 2011), dispensary measures and compensatory instruments or oral tests will be applied, PCs equipped with spelling and speech synthesis. But above all they will be granted an extra time up to a maximum of 30% or a quantitative reduction will be expected. In any case, the evaluative logic followed in such circumstances will evaluate the contents rather than the form. Due to the pandemic trend and for a matter of protecting the well-being of the student, the examination method may include online execution on the Teams platform in compliance with the guidelines provided by the University.
In particular, a lot of attention will be paid to verifying the identity of the candidate.
This will be carried out by comparing the identification document previously sent by the student to the commission / teacher with the framed face.
The documents will be collected by the teachers before the session, by creating a specific folder on OneDrive or by sending them, via e-mail, to the Commission in the days prior to the exam date.