# GENERAL PHYSICS

## Learning outcomes of the course unit

The course aims to provide the student with the basic notions of classical mechanics and electromagnetism. These notions, also illustrated by a large number of examples, will allow him to set up and solve simple problems and to understand some of the fundamental properties of matter derived from the laws studied.

In particular

Knowledge and understanding

- to know and understand the terminology used in the field of mechanics andelectromagnetism

- knowledge of fundamental laws and natural principles governing mechanics and electromagnetism.

- knowledge of strategies to find specific solutions to simple mechanics and electromagnetism problems.

Applying knowledge and understanding

- Resolutions of simple problems both in analytical and numerical terms relating to the mechanics of point particles and extended bodies, and the electromagnetism.

Communication skills

- development of a correct, rigorous and comprehensible scientific language that allows to expose clearly the knowledge and the strategies learned during the course.

Making judgments

- Ability to critically evaluate the results obtained in dealing with problems.

- Ability to make simple appropriate observations and to give possible descriptions in concrete situations close to those being dealt with in the course

Learning Skills

- the ability to apply the acquired knowledge to solve original problems inherent in mechanics and electromagnetism

## Prerequisites

The course is calculus based.

Some basics presented in the parallel course of Mathematical Analysis will be useful.

In particular

knowledge of basic trigonometry, equations and systems of first and second order, exponentials and logarithmic funtions, functions of real variable, limits, derivates and integrals.

A lesson on the basics in vector calculus will be presented at the beginning of the course.

## Course contents summary

General Physics 1 topics include mechanics, thermodynamics and brief notes on fluids and waves.

Mechanics:

Physical quantities

Vectors

Kinematics of point particles.

Dynamics of point particles

Work and energy

Momentum

Dynamics of rotational motion

Rotation of rigid bodies

Equilibrium

Gravitation

Fluid mechanics

Electricity and magnetism:

Electric charges and electric fields

Gauss’s law

Electric potential

Capacitance and dielectrics

Current, resistance, DC circuits

Magnetic fields

Faraday’s Law

Ampere-Maxwell’s Law

Brief introduction to mechanical and electromagnetic waves

## Course contents

Physical quantities. Standard and units, unit consistency; Errors, significant figures

Vectors: Scalars and Vectors, Vectors Operation, Overlapping Principle, Derivative of a Vector

Particle point kinematics. Vectors position, displacement, velocity and acceleration; Radial and tangential acceleration; Classification of motions: motions; Motions in 1D (constant speed, constant acceleration, harmonic oscillations), motions in two dimensions (projectile motion, motion in a circle); Reference systems.

Particle Point Dynamics. Newton's laws; weight, normal forces and frictional forces, elastic force; Dynamics of circular motion; Inertial and non-inertial reference systems.

Energy and work. The work of a force, the power; Examples of work of constant and varying forces; Conservative forces and potential energy; kinetic energy; work-energy theorem; Conservation of mechanical energy.

Momentum and impulse; particle systems; momentum conservation; center of mass, the motion of the mass center; collisions.

Dynamics of rotational motion of a particle. Torque, Angular momentum, Newton's second law, angular momentum theorem, kinetic energy of a rotating material point, generalizations to particle systems.

Rigid Body Dynamics. Rigid bodies; Translational motion of a rigid body, position of the center of mass; Rotational motion of a rigid body around a fixed axis; Moment of inertia and parallel axis theorem; Rotational kinetic energy and work; rolling without sliding motions, the conservation of the angular momentum.

Equilibrium of a rigid body. Solving rigid body equilibrium problems.

Newton's law of gravitation. Gravitational force and gravitational field; The gravitational potential energy; The Kepler’s laws

Fluid mechanics. Pressure and Density, Stevin's Law, Buoyancy, Bernoulli's equation.

Electrostatics. Electric chatges. Coulomb’s law and electric field. Gauss’s law and its application. Electric potential energy and electric potential. Charged conductors. Capacitance, capacitors and their combinations. Energy stored in the electric filed. Dielectrics. Electric current and Ohm’s law. Resistance, resistors and their combinations. Kirchoff’s Laws. Magnetic field. Magnetic force on charged moving particles and on current-carrying conductors. Torque on a current loop. Hall effect. Biot-Savart law. Ampere’s Law. Forces between two parallel conductors. Gauss’s Law in Magnetism. Displacement current and Ampere-Maxwell’s Law. Faraday’s Law. Induction. Mutual induction and self-induction. Energy stored in a magnetic field. Magnetic fields in matter.

Brief introduction to mechanical waves

Electromagnetic waves - Maxwell’s equations – Plane waves – Poynting’s vector

## Recommended readings

The notes of the lectures along with exercises will be available to students on Elly platform. In addition students may study the topics of the course on General Physics textbooks. Any University Physics level textbook (for Degree in Engineering or Physics) can be considered valid for the purpose of preparation. If in doubt ask the teacher.

Some suggested textbooks

Mazzoldi-Nigro-Voci - Elementi di Fisica 2 Volumes

Vol1 Meccanica e Termodinamica

Vol.2 Elettromagnetismo e Onde-

Edises

A more complete version

Mazzoldi-Nigro-Voci - Fisica Vol.1 e 2 - Edises

Gettys - 2 Volumes

Fisica 1

Fisica 2

McGraw Hill

Walker - Halliday-Resnick-Fondamenti di Fisica - CEA Settima Edizione – 2 Volumi

(vol. primo - Meccanica - Termologia)

(vol. secondo – Elettromagnetismo-Ottica)

A version with only one volume is also avalaible

A more complete version

Halliday-Resnick-Krane - Fisica 1 - CEA

Halliday-Resnick-Krane - Fisica 2 - CEA

Focardi-Massa-Uguzzoni - Fisica Generale - CEA Vol. Meccanica e Vol. Elettromagnetismo

## Teaching methods

Attending lectures is highly recommended. Many examples will be discussed during the course. Exercise sessions will be held during the course. Thanks to a special Program called IDEA, additional sessions of exercises will be provided by a tutor.

In case of SARS Cov2 pandemic perduring, classroom lessons will be held in presence, if possible, with the possibility to follow them remote in synchronous (on MS-Teams) and asynchronous way (on Elly or MS-Stream).

## Assessment methods and criteria

Two written partial tests of which the first one during the year (duration less than 1h30 ') or written test on the whole program alternatively (duration less than 2h).

Written tests will present both numerical or literal exercises and theoretical questions.

With a total score above 18/30 you will have the opportunity to immediately accept the proposed mark (oral exam at the discretion of the student who intends to improve the mark).

With a lower grade in the 18/30 written exam, but no less than 12/30, the student will be provisionally admitted to the oral test. Provisional admission means that after the written test is assessed, despite the non-achievement of the minimum requirements for verbalization, it is also possible to access the oral examination: the teacher will check the student's actual preparation through the usual questions about "Theory" as well as possibly, if deemed necessary, with the support of short written exercises (it is clear that without having the comfort of the written test the student MUST necessarily achieve the minimum proficiency level).