CHEMISTRY OF DAIRY PRODUCTS
Learning outcomes of the course unit
Provide the student with knowledge on the chemical structure and properties of the molecules characterizing meat and dairy products.
Illustrate the chemical composition of meat and dairy products and the main chemical reactions that occur following the technological processing and conservation treatments.
Provide the student with the knowledge on the main methods of analysis to guarantee the quality, typicality and authenticity of the products.
Provide information on innovation and sustainability in the animal products sector.
1. Knowledge and understanding: Knowledge of the molecular composition of meat and dairy products and understanding of the interaction between the components. Acquisition of the notions relating to chemical transformation reactions (desired and not) of food components.
2. Applying knowledge and understanding: Ability to recognize the possible modification of a product or a specific nutrient according to the process undergone. Ability to apply general knowledge to specific cases of meat or milk products.
3. Communication skills: Ability to expose the results of studies even to a non-expert public. Knowing how to present the problems relating to the molecular composition of meat and dairy products to an inexperienced public
4. Making judgments: Ability to evaluate the quality, authenticity and sustainability of a product or a transformation process on the basis of its molecular composition.
5. Learning skills: Ability to synthesize and link the different topics covered and the basic and related disciplines. Ability to update with the consultation of the scientific publications of the sector.
Course contents summary
Basic principles of chemistry: chemical bond, polarity, pH
Chemical characteristics of the main components of food systems: Water; Mineral elements; Vitamins; Carbohydrates: monosaccharides, disaccharides, oligosaccharides, polysaccharides; Proteins, amino acids, peptides: functional properties of proteins, modifications of proteins in food during technological treatments; Lipids: general information, classification, fatty acids, triglycerides, phospholipids, unsaponifiable fraction, reactions of lipids in food; Food additives.
Structure and chemical composition of skeletal muscle, changes during the transformation of muscle into meat, color of meat, composition of different types of meat, meat products and compositional changes during technological treatments, chemical additives, flavor of meat. Chemical analysis of meat and derived products.
Chemical composition of milk, heat treatments on milk, types of milk, chemical modifications during heat treatments. Dairy products: compositional variations during the production of fermented milk, butter, cheese. Aroma of dairy products. Chemical analysis of milk.
Authenticity and molecular traceability
Composition and reuse of by-products and waste
P. Cappelli, V. Vannucchi. "Chimica degli alimenti - Conservazione e trasformazioni“. Ed. Zanichelli (Bologna, 2000)
• P. Cabras, A. Martelli. "Chimica degli alimenti“. Ed. Piccin (Padova, 2004)
• H.D. Belitz, W. Grosch, P. Schieberle. “Food Chemistry, 3° revised edition”. Springer-Verlag Ed. (Berlin, Germany, 2004)
Teaching is carried out through frontal lessons (51 hours overall)
The student is then required to resume and understand the contents conveyed during the lessons, both through the study of notes and through the consultation of textbooks.
The teacher is available for clarification on the lessons individually via Teams by appointment.
The teacher also makes use of supplementary didactic material (slides of the lessons) uploaded on the Elly platform.
Assessment methods and criteria
In order to achieve the final vote, the student must demonstrate that understands and is able to apply the fundamental concepts of each topic.
Assessment of learning involves the conduction of a written examination (1 hour). The exam consists of 6 open questions about all the program, each of which contributes 5 points to the final vote.
The evaluation is expressed in thirtieths, with a minimum vote of 18/30 for the sufficiency.
There is no way to improve the evaluation of the written examination with an oral examination.