Learning outcomes of the course unit
The objectives of the course are to enable the acquisition of knowledge and understanding the mechanism of proliferation and cell death, the mechanism of response to injury (inflammation, hemostasis, tissue repair), the pathogenesis of some human genetic diseases, the biological characteristics of the tumors, as well as the essential mechanisms of the immune response and its alterations, with particular reference to applications in transfusional medicine and to the aspects of interest in nursing.
The course allows the student to apply the knowledge and understanding gained in the professional future.
Sufficient knowledge of biology, anatomy, biochemistry and physiology are needed to address the topics of the course.
Course contents summary
General alteration of cell growth and cell death, cellular and molecular oncology, genetic and metabolic diseases and general physiopathology. Blood and hematopoiesis and components of the innate and acquired immune system. General features of acute and chronic inflammation and immunopathology. Basic knowledge of Immunoemathology and transfusional medicine.
Cellular Pathology: Cellular alterations of growth and differentiation. Hyperplasia, hypertrophy, atrophy, metaplasia, dysplasia. Necrosis and apoptosis.
Oncology: classification and nomenclature of tumors; Benignant and malignant tumors; Tumor aetiology; Fundamentals in molecular oncology; invasivity and metastasis; pathogenesis of neoplastic diseases. Grading and staging.
The blood: composition, cells, general pathophysiology. Anemia and Thalassemia syndromes. Leukemia and lymphoma. Phases and events of the haemostatic response. Hemorrhagic disorders; thrombosis and embolism; infarction.
Inflammation: events of acute inflammation; the exudate; types of exudate; phagocytosis; chronic inflammation and granulomas; abscesses and ulcers; chemical mediators of inflammation; systemic effects of inflammation and fever; tissue repair.
Genetic disorders: mutations; monogenic diseases: examples of autosomic dominant, autosomic recessive and X-linked disorders; cytogenetic disorders.
Multifactorial disorders: atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus.
Innate and adaptive immunity: distinction and cooperation. Antigens and Antibodies. Ag-Ab interaction. Lymphocyte receptors. The Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC). Functional anatomy of the immune response. Lymphocyte activation and effector functions. Primary and secondary reaction. Principles of vaccination. Immune response to infections. Hypersensitivity. Primary and secondary immunodeficencies. HIV infection.
Blood groups. AB0 system. Rh system. Other blood groups. Hemolytic disease of the newborn. Fundamentals of transfusional practice. Transfusional complications.
- J. Maier “Patologia Generale e Fisiopatologia per le professioni sanitarie” II ed., McGraw-Hill
- V. Del Gobbo "Immunologia per le lauree sanitarie" IV ed., Piccin
- G.M. Pontieri “Elementi di Patologia Generale per i Corsi di Laurea in Professioni Sanitarie” III ed., Piccin
- G.M. Pontieri “Elementi di Fisiopatologia Generale per i Corsi di Laurea in Professioni Sanitarie” III ed., Piccin
The topics in the program will be presented and discussed through lectures trying to involve the student so that it can be an active part of the lesson.
According to the regulation of the Italian Government and the University of Parma about the COVID-19 pandemics, the present course is realized with frontal lessons via mixed in-presence and at-distance modality. In particular, the teacher takes lessons in the classroom with the help of PC (Powerpoint slides) ; simultaneous connection of the PC to the Teams platform in streaming modality ensures connection with students not present in the classroom. Each lesson is registered and loaded in the Elly portal of the course, together with the slides.
The teacher is available for further explanations in office or by distance via Teams after e-mail appointment, or via chat on Elly platform.
Assessment methods and criteria
Learning outcomes will be verified through an oral examination. Questions on the topics relating to the course will be used to test knowledge and understanding of the student in the scientific discipline, and her/his ability to apply such knowledge and understanding in occupational contexts.
In case the COVID-related sanitary emergence continues, the examination will proceed on the Teams platform (see the guidelines at the address: http://selma.unipr.it/).