Learning outcomes of the course unit
Allow the student to know and understand, at a basic level, the mechanisms underlying the functioning of the body’s organs of vegetative life like the heart,
lungs, kidneys, digestive system and temperature control, as well as those of social life such as the nervous and muscular systems. The course aims to enable the student to apply the knowledge and understanding gained in the future professional activity.
Course contents summary
The integrated course aims to illustrate to students the normal functioning of the human body and its organs and the main mechanisms underlying the maintenance of physiological conditions.
Excitability of cells; physiology of the neuron; physiology of the synapse; neurotransmitters and neuromodulators; the neuromuscular plate; muscle contraction and reflexes. Notes on the autonomic nervous system.
Sensory systems: principles of physiology of the sense organs; physiology of sensory receptors; organization of the somatosensory system; the dorsal and anterolateral bundles; hemisection of the spinal cord; somatotopic organization and sensory homunculus; discriminative tactile ability; plasticity of cortical maps. Pain, nociception, classification of pain and its characteristics; nociceptors; nociceptive pathways, referred pain, gate theory.
Hormones and the endocrine system.
Cardiovascular physiology: cardiac excitability; electromechanical coupling; basics of the electrocardiogram; blood pressure; capillary pressure and peripheral exchange mechanisms; nervous regulation of the heart system.
Respiratory system physiology: respiration; ventilatory mechanics and the physical principles involved (elasticity and pressure gradients); the pneumothorax; gas exchange in the lungs and peripheral tissue; the transport of gases (hemoglobin); hints of spirometry and ventilator volumes; nervous and chemical regulation of breathing; hints of obstructive respiratory pathology.
Physiology of the digestive system: structure of the digestive system, chewing, bolus formation and swallowing, digestion at the gastric level, digestion and absorption in the small intestine, peristalsis, liver and bile, the pancreas and pancreatic juice, large intestine and stool formation.
Renal physiology: structure of the kidney and nephron; functioning of the nephron; the processes of regulating homeostasis, filtration, reabsorption, secretion and excretion; passive and active transport; reabsorption of sodium and glucose; notes on the renin angiotensin system.
Physiology for Nursing Practice, SM Hinchliff, SE Montague, R Watson; Casa Editrice Ambrosiana;
Vander Physiology, EP Widmaier, H Raff, KT Strang; Casa Editrice Ambrosiana; Fisiologia, CL Stanfield, EdiSES; Human Physiology: An Integrated Approach, DU Silverthorn, Pearson; Appunti di Fisiologia, L Zocchi, EdiSES
Frontal lessons, in remote mode by virtue of the health emergency.
Assessment methods and criteria
Written examination with multiple choice questions. Questions will concern the contents taught during the classes. The examination will verify the level of general learning of the contents taught during the classes.