ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
Learning outcomes of the course unit
The course aims to illustrate to students the basics of morphological and physiological functioning of the apparatus of the physiological and social life in
Allow the student to know and understand, at a basic level, the mechanisms underlying the functioning of the body’s organs of vegetative life like the heart,
lungs, kidneys, digestive system and temperature control, as well as those of social life such as the nervous and muscular systems. The course aims to enable the student to apply the knowledge and understanding in the future professional activity.
Course contents summary
Introduction anatomy, section planes.
Locomotor system: bone, muscles and joints. Cardiovascular system: heart, pericardium, blood and lymphatic vessels, limphnodes, spleen. Digestive system: oral cavity and salivary glands, farinx, esophagous, stomach, small and large bowel, liver, gall bladder and biliary tract, pancreas, peritoneum. Respiratory system: superior and inferior air tracts, lungs and pleura. Urinary system: kidney (macro and microscopic anatomy), ureteres, bladder and urethra. Endocrine system: morphofuncitonal anatomy of endocrine glands. Male and female genital system: (macro and microscopic anatomy). General organization of the central (medulla, encephalon) and peripheral (spinal and cranial nerves) system. Sensory and motor pathways.
The integrated course aims to illustrate to students the normal functioning of the human body and its organs and the main mechanisms underlying the maintenance of physiological conditions.
Introduction anatomy, section planes.
Locomotor system: bone, muscles, and joints;
Cardiovascular system: heart, pericardium, arteries and veins of cardiac circulation, lymphatics, lymphnodes, spleen.
Digestive system: oral cavity, salivary glands, pharynx, larynx, esophagus, stomach, intestine, liver, biliary tract, pancreas, peritoneum;
Respiratory tract: superior and inferior respiratory tracts, lungs, pleurae;
Urinary system: kidney, urether, urinary bladder, urethra;
Endocrine system: endocrine glands and their morphofunctional structure;
Reproductive system: male and female, macroscopic and microscopic anatomy, ovaries, uterus, fallopian tubes, vagina, penis, testes;
General organization of the central nervous (encephalon, medulla) and autonomic (spinal nerves, cranial nerves) systems. Sensitivity and motor pathways.
Cell excitability: physiology of the neuron; physiology of synapses;
neurotransmitters and neuromodulators; the neuromuscular junction; muscle contraction. Basic principles on the autonomic nervous system function.
Cardiovascular physiology: heart excitability; electromechanical coupling; basic of EKG; blood pressure; capillary pressure and peripheral exchange mechanisms;
nervous regulation of heart rhythm.
Respiratory system physiology: breathing; the mechanical ventilation and the
physical principles involved (elasticity and pressure gradients); pneumothorax; gas exchange in the lung and peripheral tissues; the transport of gas (hemoglobin);
spirometry and respiratory volumes; nervous and chemical control of the breath; signs of obstructive respiratory disease.
Renal Physiology: structure of kidney and nephron; physiology of the nephron; processes of homeostasis, filtration, re-absorption, secretion and excretion; passive and active transport mechanisms; re-absorption of sodium and glucose; basic knowledge on the renin-angiotensin system.
Somatosensory system: principles of physiology of the sense organs; physiology of mechanoreceptors; organization of the somatosensory system; the dorsal and anterolateral ascending systems; hemisection of the spinal cord; somatotopic organization and sensory homunculus; epicritic sensibility; plasticity of the
Pain, nociception, placebo effect and empathy: classification of pain and its
characteristics; nociceptors; nociceptive pathways (protopathic sensibility);
nociception vs. pain and emotional component; phantom pain; placebo effect;
concept of empathy.
Physiology of the digestive system: the structure of the digestive system, chewing,
bolus formation and swallowing; digestion in the stomach; digestion and absorption in the small intestine; peristalsis; the liver and bile; pancreas and pancreatic juice;
the large intestine and the formation of feces.
The endocrine system.
Anatomia dell'Uomo 2° ed. (Ambrosi et al.) Ed. Edi-Ermes; Anatomia Umana
(Martini, Timmons, Tallitsch) Ed. EdiSES
Physiology for Nursing Practice, SM Hinchliff, SE Montague, R Watson;
Vander Physiology, EP Widmaier, H Raff, KT Strang
Morphology: the course will be based on lectures during which students will also have the ability to view the anatomical structures on special anatomical models plastic.
Physiology: during the lectures will be presented and discussed the topics listed in the program seeking to involve the student so that it can be an active part of the lesson.
Assessment methods and criteria
The assessment of the achievement of the objectives of the course consists of a written test. Through questions about the contents of the course will be determined whether the student has achieved the goal of knowledge and understanding of the content.
In case of the persistence of the health emergency, the exams will be conducted remotely with written test, through the Teams platform (guide http://selma.unipr.it/) and ELLY educational portal.
Students with SLD / BSE must first contact Le Eli-che: support for students with disabilities, D.S.A., B.E.S. (https://sea.unipr.it/it/servizi/le-eli-che-supporto-studenti-con-disabil...)