EDUCATION IN ANCIENT PHILOSOPHY
Learning outcomes of the course unit
Purpose of education is to provide a more complete picture of the
educational and philosophical thought in mind throughout the ancient philosophy, which, notoriously, goes from the sixth century BC to the 5th-6th century AD, both are charged that Christian. Educational processes will be considered present and been consolidated in ancient times paidéia the formation of man and of the citizen. So we'll talk about the medical education, of scientific education in General: psychological, physical and moral logic, metaphysics, that the various authors and the various philosophical schools have developed over the so-called Socratic periods: presocratico, , classic of Plato and Aristotle, to the Hellenistic period, epicure, stoic, skeptic, medioplatonico and neoplatonic, Christian, pagan who to reach both Proclus and Simplicius.
No prerequisite is required.
Course contents summary
"MORAL" EDUCATION IN ANCIENT PHILOSOPHY
What is good, what is bad? This is the topic of moral education in Ancient philosophy. What theoretical content does it have, how is it taught?
This problem starts with Socrates, who is considered the founder of moral philosophy and for whom the rationally known good must necessarily be accomplished. The reason why evil consists in ignorance of what is good to do.
In his wake, Plato will also accept the contents of this teaching, insisting, however, on the one hand on the mystical-religious redemption of the soul from the evil condition in which it fell (Orphic-Pythagorean vision); and, on the other, on the individual's ability to achieve a harmony of the soul with the body and its passions based on respect for "justice", understood as a harmonious implementation between the various virtues of the soul: wisdom, fortitude and temperance ( see Resp. 433 ae).
While Plato's pupil, Aristotle will dedicate three works to the moral theme: the great ethics, ethics to Eudemus and above all the ethics dedicated to his son Nicomachus, where he will talk about the "Dianoetic virtues" of the "right intellectual exercise" and of the "ethical virtues", apt to regulate the affective and impulsive elements of our life. However, both dianoetic and ethical virtues must be "habit", habitual virtues, that is, constant and continuous dispositions to accomplish the good known as such. So it is not enough just to know the good to be virtuous, but it is necessary to want to implement it continuously, also in social and political life.
After him, Epicureans and Stoics will also discuss the moral topic, making it become the main part of their philosophical and life teaching.
For the Epicureans we speak of: hedonism, "ataraxia", "static" and not "moving" pleasure, "living hidden" and far from social and political life.
While for the Stoics we speak of: "apatìa", eradication of passions, resigned and conscious acceptance of the events due to Necessity and Fate that guide the universe and the whole nature, including human nature.
Augustine of Tagaste will give his vision of moral philosophy, which will mark itself throughout the subsequent medieval period and beyond, dealing with evil (moral, physical and, as Leibniz will call it metaphysical), freedom and grace
- reading at least one manual for high schools on Ancient moral philosophy, from Socrates to Saint Augustine (in the absence of one's own, I would suggest: REAL-ANTISERI, History of philosophical ideas ..., vol. I, La Scuola, Brescia); or: M. IVALDO, History of moral philosophy, Editori Riuniti, Rome 2006, chapters. I and II (including Augustine). Or: S. CREMASCHI, Breve storia dell'etica, Carocci, Firenze, the first 7 chapters.
- lessons and exercises in the classroom.or by internet.
OPTIONAL TEXT: For your information list some of the major stories of ancient philosophy, at the University level, available in Italian: l. ROBIN, History of Greek thought, Mondadori, Milano 1978 ff.; G. REALE, History of ancient philosophy (there are various editions: by that, in five volumes, edited by Vita e Pensiero, Milano 1990 ss., that, in one volume, entitled history of Greek and Roman philosophy, published by Bompiani, Milano 2004 ff.); N. ABBAGNANO – G. FORNERO, History of ancient philosophy ..., Utet, Torino 2017 ss.; AA. (Various authors), Ancient philosophy, in 4 vols., edited, respectively, by M. BONAZZI, F. TRABATTONI, E. SPINELLI, R. CHIARADONNA, Carocci, Roma 2016-2018 ss.; A. KENNY, New history of Western philosophy, vol. 1, Ancient philosophy, Einaudi, Torino 2012 ss.; E. LAMANNA, History of ancient philosophy, Le Monnier, Firenze 1989 ss.;
L. GEYMONAT, History of philosophical and scientific thought, vol. I, Garzanti, Milano 1970 ss.; F. ADORNO, Ancient philosophy, Feltrinelli, Milano 1977 ff.; G. DE RUGGIERO, History of ancient philosophy, 2 vols., Universal Laterza, Laterza, Bari 1980 SS.
Might help some anthologies of steps commented on ancient philosophy. I will mention just two: M. BONAZZI, L. CARDULLO, G. CASERTANO, E. SPINELLI,Ff. TRABATTONI (editor), Ancient philosophy, Cortina, Milan 2005 ss.; D. PESCE, Texts of ancient philosophy ..., vol. The history of philosophy, Principato, Florence 1995 ss.
Lectures and seminars, if possible, with discussions of texts and topics specific to the course and classroom by internet; presentation of chapters or parts of books in the bibliography by internet.
Assessment methods and criteria
Oral examination. Evaluation criteria: 18 thresholds, 27, 30, 24, of 30 and praise will be reached, respectively, following a good, decent and good enough understanding of the topics covered; and a similar enough, fair, good, excellent clarity and proficiency in the use of specialist vocabulary. The threshold of praise will add elements of originality or particular deepening of topics covered
Program and verification of learning mode are the same for students attending and not attending.