URBAN ECOLOGY AND OUTDOOR DESIGN
Learning outcomes of the course unit
At the end of the course, each student must demonstrate that he has learned the subject content, applying them to the scale of the development plan.
Knowledge and understanding:
The course aims to provide students with some elements of analysis and critical inquiry to examine urban open space features, providing either some basic criteria for the identification of environmental components and verifying the proper use in the project work during the year.
The course will provide knowledge on all of the elements that make up the open space of the city and how they combine each other. This wealth of knowledge, properly metabolized and meditated upon , will enable the student to evaluate the quality or dysfunctionality of collective space .
The student will be able to apply these tools in reference to a specific context of rehabilitation of the consolidated city with the detailed development of open spaces at the scale of the urban neighbourhood.
The student will also be required to know how to prepare a reconnaissance and assessment of green systems and networks for pedestrian and bicycle use at the urban scale and neighbourhood.
Course contents summary
The course contents are divided into lectures and practical exercises. The main topics of the lectures are aimed to classify analysis and intervention on the physical space of the city as an action that refers , above all, the dynamics of the relational character that exist between the various components that make up the built environment (arrangement, network paths, public and green space and, more indirectly, urban fitting); the intent is to bring out the relative independence of these structural relationships from the choices of language (often , the only topic of design research), to be able to explore ways of mutual composition.
We will proceed with the analysis of design alternatives that outline the characteristics (location and morphological settlement) of the three main classes of entities that make up the urban environment (paths, built-up area, open space), to highlight the role of centrality of open spaces, often regarded as residual elements while they form the prime reference for the organization, the identity and quality of the urban environment. The exposure of significant examples of public environment analysis will aim to illustrate the mutual influences between the repertoire of settlement elements and the plans for the development and qualification of urban space. This approach, which considers the urban planning activities as eminently empirical, is intended to avoid the dangers of a kind of guidance only conceptual and formalistic.
The cultural content described above will be shown through the analysis of some of the most significant European experience of integrated urban planning, paying particular attention to the role of urban form and usability in the definition of environmental performance criteria of collective space.
What emerged from this cultural reconstruction will be applied in the context of a proposed reorganization of the complex of open spaces related to some public housing neighbourhoods of the city of Parma.
The work consists of a design in appropriate scale (1:1000), which returns the layout of the plan and a technical report that contains the reasons and criteria of the above items.
Additional insights may be of interest :
• Analysis of the urban landscape.
With reference to the natural matrices (altimetry, slope , hydrography, phytosociology), anthropogenic (demography , land use, mobility), cultural (history of the area, witnesses emergencies / identity, sources ...) and perceptual (visibility, semiology). Examples of semiotic reading of the urban landscape and suburban areas.
• Introduction to ecology of the urban landscape .
Definition of ecology and urban ecology, ecological planning of settlements, tasks of vegetation in urban areas.
• Themes of landscape architecture in urban areas.
Codification of urban green spaces and main landscape functions, with reference to the protagonists of the outdoor design of the last century.
The urban park.
Recreational and sport areas, social vegetable garden, urban agriculture, urban fringe forests .
• Criteria for the design of urban comfort .
Definition of heat island and requirements for thermal control of solar radiation; paving, roofing, body of water, vertical greenery
EUGENIO TURRI, La conoscenza del territorio, Marsilio, Venezia, 2003.
KEVIN LYNCH, L'immagine della città, Marsilio, Venezia, 1964 (1960).
CHRISTIAN NORBERG-SCHULTZ, Genius Loci, Electa, Milano 1979 (1976).
CHRISTOPHER ALEXANDER, Le nuove regole del disegno urbano, Gangemi, Roma, 1997.
MAURICE CERASI, La lettura dell’ambiente, Clup, Milano, 1973.
SYLVIA CROWE, Il progetto del giardino, Muzzio, Padova, 1989.
VALENTINA DESSI', Progettare il confort urbano, SE, Milano, 2007.
VITTORIO INGEGNOLI, ELENA GIGLIO, Ecologia del Paesaggio, Esselibri, Napoli, 2005.
CARLO PERABONI, Reti ecologiche e infrastrutture verdi, Maggioli, Rimini, 2011.
GIULIO RIZZO, ROBERTO BURLE MARX. Il giardino del Novecento, Cantini, Firenze, 1992.
VALERIO ROMANI, Il paesaggio dell’Alto Garda Bresciano, Grafo, Brescia, 1988.
FRANCO ZAGARI, Questo è paesaggio, Mancosu Editore, Roma, 2006.
MARIELLA ZOPPI, Storia del giardino europeo, Laterza, Bari, 1995.
Teaching will consist of lectures, practical exercises in the classroom and off-site teaching, seminars, visits, conferences with invited guests.
Assessment methods and criteria
During the course, students will be able to check their level of learning through exercises ex-tempore preparation Poster thematic reports which will serve to focus the content that will require further investigation. These tasks may be individual or group.
The exam will be done by means of an oral examination and will consist of the presentation of the project of open space for the neighborhood under study.
The discussion of the examination, carried out individually, it will be an opportunity to see, with targeted questions, the theoretical knowledge transmitted during the course. For the evaluation criteria and the weight given to the various parts of the exam, please refer to the program of the Urban Planning and Design Studio (M-Z students).