DIGITAL ELECTRONICS: FUNDAMENTALS AND LABORATORY (MODULE 1)
Learning outcomes of the course unit
The course provides basic information to understand the digital systems operating principles. The course aims at making students to acquire a functional vision of digital systems, to be able to complete simple design experiences, and to become familiar with some of the common basic CAD tools.
The course provides the basic information needed to the understanding of digital systems operating principles. After completing this course, students acquire a functional vision of digital systems and are able to complete simple design experiences.
Course contents summary
- Introduction to the basic concepts of information theory such as: logical abstraction model, signals, sensors and actuators, logic functions.
- Design of combinational logic networks using elementary building blocks.
- Design and synthesis of combinatorial networks.
- Complex circuit blocks
- Design and synthesis of sequential logics
- Digital system architectures
Introduction to electronic systems: components and basic functions.
Concept of signal and signal processing; analog, digital and binary representations of information .
Abstraction of physical systems: hierarchy of description levels. Functional and structural description of digital systems. Analysis and synthesis processes. Logical networks: definitions and introductory concepts. Elementary logical operations. Combinational and sequential systems.
Design of combinational systems: logic functions and their implementation, truth tables, Karnaugh maps; equivalent functions.
NAND- and NOR-based synthesis.
Programmable devices: MUX, ROM, PAL, PLA.
Non-idealities: propagation delays, glitches.
Sequential systems: concepts and definitions. Memory elements. Synchronous and asynchronous sequential networks. Finite state machines: description, optimization and synthesis.
Design of synchronous systems: algorithms and software tools.
Asynchronous systems: non-idealities, transient effects (glitches, races), fail-safe design criteria.
Basic concepts of Information theory (6h)
- Model and levels of logical abstraction
- Signals: analogue and digital representations
- Transducers: sensor and actuator
- A/D and D/A conversion
- Binary numerical system
- Logic function
- Concepts of black-box, I/O, processing, memory and control
Fundamentals of combinational logic networks (6h)
- Logical ports
- Logical operations and expressions
- Boolean algebra
- De Morgan theorems
Synthesis of digital circuits (10 h)
- Truth table
- Canonical functions
- Maps of Karnaugh
- Logic minimization
- Problem of delays and glitches
Combinational building blocks (4h)
- Multiplexer, Decoder, Half Adder, Full Adder
Fundamentals of sequential logical networks (16h)
- Latch and Flip-Flop
- Synthesis of synchronous networks
- Finite State Machines
- Timing of sequential logics
Digital Architecture (6h)
- Arithmetic circuits, counters, shift registers
- ROM, RAM memories
- Logical matrices: PAL and PLA
- Programmable circuits (FPGA)
- Functional scheme of a uProcessor
Introduction to digital systems (4h):
• analog and digital signals
• the base-2 numeral system
Logical operators and expressions (4h)
• Boolean Algebra and Boolean algebra theorems
• De Morgan's laws
• Basic logic gates and truth table
canonical forms (2h)
Half Adder, Full Adder, Decoders, Multiplexers (4h)
Combinational logic design (8h)
• Logic synthesis
• Optimization of combinational logic circuits
• Karnaugh maps
• Determination of prime implicants
• Finding the constitutive terms of a minimal expression
• the propagation delay and the transport delay
• static and dynamic hazards
• Programmable devices: ROM, PAL, PLA
Synchronous Sequential Machines (14h)
• design of Sequential Circuits
• Flip-Flops & Counters
• the state diagram and its reduction
• the steps for the design of sequential circuits
Asynchronous Sequential Machines (6h)
• model, applications
• flow-table synthesis: the toggle circuit
• races and state assignmentExercises (6h)
- S. L. Harris, D.M. Harris, “Sistemi digitali e architettura dei calcolatori”, Zanichelli editore
- M. Morris Mano, C.R. Kime, "Reti Logiche", Pearson Prentice Hall
- R. Laschi, M. Prandini, "Reti Logiche", Progetto Leonardo, Bologna
1) R. Laschi, M. Prandini, "Reti Logiche", Progetto Leonardo, Bologna
2) F. Fummi, M. Sami, C. Silvano , "Progettazione digitale"; II ed, McGraw-Hill.
3) M. Morris Mano, C.R. Kime, "Reti Logiche", Pearson Prentice Hall
The course includes oral lectures, alternating with software demonstrations and laboratory practice.
The course includes oral lectures, alternating with exercises.
Assessment methods and criteria
The exam includes an evaluation of laboratory activity and a written test with exercises on the topics covered during the course.
To access the written test a positive evaluation must be obtained in the laboratory exam.
The exam includes an evaluation of laboratory activity (DIGITAL ELECTRONICS: FUNDAMENTALS AND LABORATORY, module II) and a written test with exercises on the topics covered during the course.
To access the written test (in the afternoon of the examination day) a positive evaluation must be obtained in the laboratory exam (in the morning of the examination date). It is not allowed to take the laboratory exam and the written exam in different dates.