# GENERAL PHYSICS 1

## Learning outcomes of the course unit

The couse aims to provide the student with the fundamental concepts of mechanics and thermodynamics, through examples and exercises. During the course, the student will learn how to discuss and solve simple problems, to understand and describe physical phenomena as well as the physical properties of matter that he can experience in everyday life.The course will provide the following skills:

- knowledge of the correct scientific terminology used in Mechanics and Thermodynamics.- knowledge of the fundamental laws that describe the physics of Mechanics and Thermodynamics;- solving simple problems, analytically and numerically;- developing a rigorous scientific language, to transmit accurately the knowledge acquired and to describe physics phenomena;- critical assessment of his advancement in the study of physics;- critical discussion of the results obtained while solving physics problems, in particular focusing on errors and non-physical results; - to formulate simple observation and adequate predictions in real-life situations involving the physics of this course.

## Prerequisites

Basic Mathematical analysisTrigonometry, equations and systems of equations, exponential, logarithm, real variable functions, limits, derivatives and integrals.The first lessons of the couse will be focused on the bases of vectorial calculus.

## Course contents summary

Mechanics:

Physical quantities, scientific notation (2 h)

Vectors (2 h)

Kinematics of point particles (6 h)

Dynamics of point particles (6 h)

Work and energy (4 h)

Momentum (4 h)

Collisions (4 h)

Dynamics of rotational motion (6 h)

Rotation of rigid bodies (6 h)

Equilibrium (6 h)

Gravitation (4 h)

Mechanical waves (2 h)

Fluid dynamics (2 h)

Thermodynamics:

Temperature and heat (6 h)

First law of thermodynamics (6 h)

Second law of thermodynamics (6 h)

## Course contents

Physical quantities. Standard and units, unit consistency; Errors, significant figures

Vectors: Scalars and Vectors, Vectors Operation, Overlapping Principle, Derivative of a Vector

Particle point kinematics. Vectors position, displacement, velocity and acceleration; Radial and tangential acceleration; Classification of motions: motions; Motions in 1D (constant speed, constant acceleration, harmonic oscillations), motions in two dimensions (projectile motion, motion in a circle); Reference systems.

Particle Point Dynamics. Newton's laws; weight, normal forces and frictional forces, elastic force; Dynamics of circular motion; Inertial and non-inertial reference systems.

Energy and work. The work of a force, the power; Examples of work of constant and varying forces; Conservative forces and potential energy; kinetic energy; work-energy theorem; Conservation of mechanical energy.

Momentum and impulse; particle systems; momentum conservation; center of mass, the motion of the mass center; collisions.

Dynamics of rotational motion of a particle. Torque, Angular momentum, Newton's second law, angular momentum theorem, kinetic energy of a rotating material point, generalizations to particle systems.

Rigid Body Dynamics. Rigid bodies; Translational motion of a rigid body, position of the center of mass; Rotational motion of a rigid body around a fixed axis; Moment of inertia and parallel axis theorem; Rotational kinetic energy and work; rolling without sliding motions, the conservation of the angular momentum.

Equilibrium of a rigid body. Solving rigid body equilibrium problems.

Newton's law of gravitation. Gravitational force and gravitational field; The gravitational potential energy; The Kepler’s laws

Mechanical waves: types of mechanical waves, superposition and wave interference, waves on a strings, mathematical description of a wave, standing waves on a string, beats.

Thermodynamics. Thermodynamic systems; Temperature and thermometers; ideal gas law; Thermodynamic work, heat and laws of thermodynamics (zeroth, first and second law); Thermodynamic processes; heat capacitance and calorimetry; Carnot cycle, heat engines and refrigerators, efficiency and coefficient of performance; entropy.

## Recommended readings

Gettys - Fisica 1 - McGraw Hill Quinta Edizioni

Mazzoldi-Nigro-Voci - Elementi di Fisica Meccanica Termodinamica - Edises Seconda EdizioneHalliday-Resnick-Krane - Fisica 1 - CEA Quinta edizioneAny other Physics I book of university level (For Physics or Engineering) can be used for this course.

## Teaching methods

Frontal lessons, where the main concepts will be discussed with examples and simple problems. Each part of the course in completed by a number of hours dedicated to exercises.

For some highlights and problems, short online video lessons will be available for “flipped classroom” activities.

## Assessment methods and criteria

Two written partial tests of which the first one during the year (duration 2h) or written test on the whole program alternatively (duration 2h).

Written tests will present both numerical or literal exercises and theoretical questions.

If 18/30 or above is achieved in both partial tests, the exam is passed. An oral test can be taken to improve the vote.

If the average of the partial tests is above 18/30 but one of the partials was not sufficient, the oral test is mandatory.

The total exams are passed with marks above or equal to 18/30. An oral test can be taken to improve the results.

## Other informations

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