Learning outcomes of the course unit
Knowledge and understanding:
At the end of the course the student will have integrated his knowledge
about natural phenomena governing the transformation of matter, will
have a complete overview of the laws governing the structure of atoms,
molecules and compounds; know the theoretical reasons that are at the
basis of the energy balance during the transformations of matter, will
know how to obtain electrical work by processes of redox
Applying knowledge and understanding:
At the end of the course the student will have developed the ability to
understand some physical and chemical characteristics of the
substances, such as state of aggregation and volatility, hardness and
fragility based on the knowledge of their structure. He will know how to
quantify spontaneity of chemical and electrochemical processes and
quantify the mass and energy balance during these transformations.
By the end of the course, the student should be able to evaluate, with
critical mind, the experimental measurements of chemical reactions
By the end of the course, the student should be able to clearly present
the experimental results of chemical reactions.
A solid background in physics and mathematics is recommended. No chemical background is needed.
Course contents summary
The atomic structure of matter
Electronic structure of atoms
Thermochemistry and thermodynamics
The gaseous state
The Iiquid state
The solid state
Nature of solutions
Equilibria in solution
THE ATOMIC STRUTURE OF MATTER
Historical development of atomic theory. Subatomic particles. Principles
ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE OF ATOMS
Early atomic models: the Bohr atom; wave mechanical models.
Multielectronic atoms and the Aufbau principle. Electron configurations of
the elements in the periodic table. Periodic properties of the elements
Ionic bond, covalent bond, electronic delocalization and resonance. Polar
covalent bond. Electronegativity. Molecular geometry (VSEPR) and polarity. VB and MO. Metal
bond (band theory from MO model). Conductors, insulators and
semiconductors. Van der Waals forces and hydrogen bond.
NOMENCLATURE AND REACTIONS
Oxidation numbers, classification and nomenclature of inorganic
compounds. Types of chemical equations.
THERMODINAMICS AND THERMOCHEMISTRY
The First Law. Enthalpy. Heat of formation, thermochemical equations,
Hess’s Iaw and enthalpy diagrams.
The Second Law: entropy. Gibbs free energy
THE GASEOUS STATE
Introduction. Equation of state of an ideal gas. Real gases. Van der Waals
equation. Kinetic theory. Partial pressure and partial volume. Gas
Iiquefaction, critical temperature.
THE LIQUID STATE
Introduction. Evaporation. Vapour tension and its dependence from the
temperature. Relative humidity. Boiling. Sublimation. Fusion and
solidification. Water and carbon dioxide phase diagrams.
THE SOLID STATE
Crystalline and amorfous solids. Crystal lattice and lattice planes.
Primitive and non-primitive cells. Covalent, ionic, molecular and metallic
Nature of solutions. Concentration of solutions. Raoult’s Iaw. Colligative
properties of solutions.
The van’t Hoff coefficient.
Chemical equilibrium: the Iaw of mass action. The equilibrium constants
Kp and Kc. Omogeneous and eterogeneous equilibrium. The Le
Chatelier—Braun principle. Phase equilibria. Sulphur fase diagram. Binary systems. Distillation. Eutectic systems. Alloys. Solubility and solubility product.
EQUILIBRIA IN SOLUTION
Acids and bases: Arrhenius’ theory, the Brønsted-Lowry theory. Water
autoionization. The ionic product of water. The pH scale. Hydrolysis. pH indicators. Buffers.
Electrolytic cells. Electrolysis and its applications. Stoichiometry of
electrolysis. Galvanic cells. Stoichiometry of galvanic processes.
Electrode potentials and electromotive force in standard conditions.
Nernst equation. Applications. Corrosion.
Reaction rates. Transition state theory. Factors influencing the rate of a reaction. Catalysis.
Alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, alicyclic hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons, haloderivatives, polymers. alcohols, ethers, aldehydes, ketons, carboxylic acids, esters, amines, aminoacids.
"Lezioni di Chimica per Ingegneria"
F. Ugozzoli - Libreria Medico Scientifica, Parma
"Fondamenti ti Chimica"
A. M. Manotti Lanfredi, A. Tiripicchio -
"Come risolvere i problemi di chimica"
F. Ugozzoli – CEA, Casa Editrice Ambrosiana
Lectures using slides (available to students) and blackboard. Optional tutorials on practical exercises with the help of dedicated secondary school
teachers employed as tutors.
Assessment methods and criteria
The examination is based on a written test (5 exercises and four open theoretical questions) and on an oral exam, once the written part has been passed.
The evaluation is expressed in /30
Attendance is strongly recommended