GROUND WATER IDROLOGY AND AQUIFER PROTECTION
Learning outcomes of the course unit
1°- Knowledge and understanding
At the end of the lesson the student will know the components of the
main hydraulic infrastructure: aqueducts and sewage systems. He will
know also the theory of the appropriate design methods. He will have
acquired the knowledge of the current regulations about aqueducts and
sewers. He will understand the technical terminology in the field.
2°- Applying knowledge and understanding
Ability to design and verify aqueducts and sewers within the Italian
3°- Making judgments
The student will acquire the ability to outline the real problem to find the
technically sound and cost-effective design solutions.
4°- Communication skills
On passing the exam, the student should have acquired sufficient correct
use of the language with regard to the topic specific terminology.
5°- Learning skills
The student should have acquired the basic knowledge of the discipline
that will allow him to learn independently the future developments of the
The course develops the basics of Hydraulics and Hydrology that the
student should have acquired in the bachelor's degree.
It is useful a basic knowledge of Geotechnics.
Course contents summary
The course will transmit to the students the full theoretical and technical
tools useful for the comprehension of the hydrological processes
concerning aquifers, for a rational use of the groundwater and for a water
Mathematical models of groundwater. Recalls and supplements of
hydraulics of porous media: porosity, conductivity of saturated porous
media, Darcy law, characteristic curve for unsaturated media,
conductivity of unsaturated porous media, continuity equation, specific
storativity, Laplace equation and its solutions.
2D confined and unconfined aquifers, storativity, confined and
unconfined wells, pumping tests and their interpretation.
Water balance in the aquifer: analysis of sources, withdrawal and output,
Numerical methods for the solution of the equations: finite differences
and finite elements methods. Selection of space and time scales and
boundary conditions. Interactions between surface network and
Treatment of the natural heterogeneity of aquifers. Recalls and
supplements of theory of stochastical processes. Random variables,
covariance function, variogram. Kreaging process for the estimate of
Pollutant transport. Pollutant fluxes by: advection, diffusion, dispersion.
Chemical-physical-biological reactions in groundwater. Continuity
equations in water and soil. Formal mathematical model of transport:
coupled and uncoupled problems. Analytical solution in simple conditions.
Numerical solution of the transport equations. Characterization of
polluted sites. Inverse problems in pollution transport.
Stochastic theory of pollutant transport in heterogeneous aquifers. Main
results for uniform (in the average) flow and flow with recharge. Aquifer
Restoration. Pollutant containment techniques: physical barrier, hydraulic
barrier. In situ treatment: pump and treat, vapour extraction, soil venting,
capture of NAPLs, reactive barriers. Natural attenuation.
Matlab language: Sintax of elementary use. Data Structures. Matrix and array. 3D Matrices. Operations on matrices. Elementary mathematical functions. Alternative and cyclic structures. Matlab scripts. Plots. Simple numerical model of the flow in a confined aquifer.
Butera I. e Tanda M. G.: Dispense del Corso di Idrologia Sotterranea per
gli allievi di Ingegneria per l’Ambiente ed il Territorio, Dipartimento di
Ingegneria e Architettura dell’Università di Parma, available on the
University web learning site “Web LEArning in Ateneo”
De Marsily G. : Quantitative Hydrogeology – Groundwater Hydrology for
Engineers, Academic Press, Inc., 1986.
Custodio E. e M.R. Llamas: Idrologia Sotterranea, Dario Flaccovio Editore,
Bear J. e A. Verruijt: Modeling Groundwater Flow and Pollution, D. Reidel
Pub. Company, 1998.
Di Molfetta A. e R. Sethi: Ingegneria degli acquiferi, Springer 2012.
Domenico P.A. e F. W. Schwartz: Physical and Chemical Hydrogeology,
John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1998.
Canter L. W., Knox R.C., Rasmussen, Spizzichino, Ground Water Pollution
Control, Lewis Pub., 1985.
Detay M.: Water wells, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1997.
Additional educational material available on the University web learning
site “Web LEArning in Ateneo” https://elly2020.dia.unipr.it/ :
Lecture slides. Exercitation slides.
The course consists of a series of lectures and numerical exercises. The
lessons will be carried out using Power Point presentations copy of which
is provided in advance. The exercitations are presented in the computer
lab, carried out numerically using the software Excel and other
specialized software. A training course on Scientific language software Matlab will be made. Some practices will be developed using original scropts made by the students.
Assessment methods and criteria
The exam consists of an oral exam divided in two parts that will focus,
respectively, on the topics discussed in the lectures and in the numerical
In the evaluation of the interview the different learning components will
be weighted as: 50% application of the theory to a real case (Applying
knowledge), 25% identification of the best solution procedure (Making
judgments), 25% correct use of the technical Language (Communication
Lecture and practice attendance is highly recomended.