# ENVIRONMENTAL AND COASTAL HYDRAULICS (MODULE 1)

## Learning outcomes of the course unit

Knowledge and ability to understand:At the end of the course of the course the student will have to know the main theoretical aspects for the study of coastal processes.Skills:The student must be able to describe the physical process with the use of mathematical analysis; to identify the process parameters by separating them from the variables; to solve the application cases, carrying out checks to the advantage of security.Autonomy of judgment:The student must possess the tools to critically evaluate the applicability of the acquired models or the need to resort to more advanced and detailed models.Communication skills:The student must possess the ability to clearly present the results of the analysis, both orally and in writing, also through the use of tables and graphs.

The student will have to improve the ability to learn, transforming the already acquired skills of understanding theory into the ability to learn the applicative aspects.

Knowledge and ability to understand:At the end of the course of the course the student will have to know the main theoretical aspects for the study of coastal processes.Skills:The student must be able to describe the physical process with the use of mathematical analysis; to identify the process parameters by separating them from the variables; to solve the application cases, carrying out checks to the advantage of security.Autonomy of judgment:The student must possess the tools to critically evaluate the applicability of the acquired models or the need to resort to more advanced and detailed models.Communication skills:The student must possess the ability to clearly present the results of the analysis, both orally and in writing, also through the use of tables and graphs.

The student will have to improve the ability to learn, transforming the already acquired skills of understanding theory into the ability to learn the applicative aspects.

## Prerequisites

Hydraulics, Differential analysis, Geometry, Rational Mechanics, Physics.

Hydraulics, Differential analysis, Geometry, Rational Mechanics, Physics.

## Course contents summary

The course provides the student with advanced concepts of Hydraulics and Fluid Mechanics in coastal processes. The student is able to solve some technical problems of Environmental Hydraulics, with the application of conceptual models, numerical and physical models. Five numerical exercises are planned in order to concretely demonstrate some aspects of the topics covered. A visit to the Hydraulics laboratory is scheduled.

The course provides the student with advanced concepts of Hydraulics and Fluid Mechanics in coastal processes. The student is able to solve some technical problems of Environmental Hydraulics, with the application of conceptual models, numerical and physical models. Five numerical exercises are planned in order to concretely demonstrate some aspects of the topics covered. A visit to the Hydraulics laboratory is scheduled.

## Course contents

6 CFU common to students of Civil Engineering (I module) and Engineering for the Environment and the Territory, total 42 hours of lectures

Lesson 1: Chapter 1 - Physical oceanography, 1.1 General knowledge, 1.2 ldrosphere, 1.2.1 Sea level, 1.2.2 Determination of the average sea level, 1.2.3 Surveyof the sea floor, 1.3 Sea water, 1.4 The Nautical Charts (13 pp.)

Lesson 2: Chapter 2 - Generation and characteristics of the winds - Traverses, 2.1 Introduction, 2.2 Definitions, 2.3 Wind generation, 2.4 Geostrophic wind. Gradient wind. Real wind, 2.5 Wind on the surface for wave prediction, 2.5.1 Trend of the long vertical velocity, 2.5.2 Correction for air-sea temperature difference, 2.6 Wind force factor (14 pp.)

Lesson 3: Chapter 3 - Information on winds and waves, 3.1 Introduction, 3.2 Wind field on the wave generation area Definition of fetch, 3.3 Wind field evaluation, 3.3.1 Wind direction, 3.3.2 Wind speed, 3.3.3 Wind duration, 3.3.4 Fetch length, 3.4 Evaluation of wind characteristics, 3.5 Wind and sea data in Italy, 3.5.1 Collecting anemological data, 3.6 Data availability for waves (15 pp.)Lesson 4: Chapter 4 - Wind-generated waves, 4.1 Wind-wave generation, 4.2 Sea wave surface, 4.3 Wave-length distribution function, 4.4 Wave-wave distribution function (12 pp.)

Exercise 1: calculation of fetch, effective fetch. Calculation of wave height based on wind data. Reconstruction of wave and wind statistics: dominant wind, reigning.

Lesson 5: 4.5 Wave energy spectrum (frequency domain analysis), 4.6 Common energy spectra, 4.7 Directional wave spectrum (12 pp.)

Lesson 6: Chapter 5 - Wave Description and Analysis, 5 1 Premises, 5 1 1 Point-based methods, 5 1 2 Global-scale methods, 5 2 Geographical transposition of wave-wave data, 5 2 1 Application of method with transposition of the data of the wave climate from the buoy of Crotone to the town of Taranto (12 pp.)Lesson 7: Chapter 6 - Statistics of extreme values of wave heights, 6.1 Annual average wave climate, 6.2 Extreme wave climate, 6.2.1 Analysis of extreme values of significant heights (11 pp.)

Lesson 8: 6.2.2 The Goda method, 6.2.3 Forecasting sea states over time using the equivalent triangular storm concept, 6.3 Project life and probability of occurrence, 6.4 Using the spread parameter in poor areas of wave data (12 pp.)

Lesson 9: Chapter 7 - Regular Wave Mechanics, 7.1 Introduction, 7.2 Wave Classification, 7.3 Fundamental Equation of Variable to Potential Motion, 7.3.1 The Boundary Conditions, 7.4 Theory of the Small-Width Progressive Wave, 7.5 Relationship of linear dispersion (progressive wave), 7.6 Relative depth (13 pp.)

Lesson 10: 7.7 The stationary wave, 7.8 Wave groups, 7.9 Wave energy, 7.10 The average flow of energy or wave power, 7.11 The theory of finite amplitude wave - Nonlinear theory, 7.11. 1 Stokes theory of higher order, 7.11.2 The theory of the long wave (L / H »1) (12 pp.)

Exercise 2: zero-crossing analysis, statistics of ridges and cables, statistics of periods, calculation of mean water level.

Lesson 11: Chapter 8 - Transformation of the waves in the propagation, 8.1 Premise, 8.2 Processes to which the wave is subject, 8.3 Shoaling, 8.4 Refraction, 8.4.1 The case of straight and parallel bathymetric, 8.4.2 irregular bathymetric, 8.4.3 Graphical construction of the wave plane (14 pp.)Lesson 12: 8.5 Diffraction, 8.6 Diffraction and refraction combined, 8.7 Fraction (13 pp.)

Lesson 13: 8.7.1 Distribution function in the area of the breakers, 8.8 Set-down and set-up, 8.9 Radiation stress, 8.10 Reflection, 8.10.1 Reflection of vertical waterproof walls, 8.10.2 Reflections in a closed basin (resonance or re-attacks) (11 pp.)

Exercise 3: statistics of extremes. Calculation of the project wave.

Lesson 14: Chapter 9 - Tides, 9.1 Introduction, 9.2 Tides and harmonic analyzes General information, 9.3 Tidal balance theory, 9.3.1 Earth-Moon-Sun system characteristics, 9.3.2 The forces producing the tide, 9.3. 3 Relative effect of the Moon and the Sun which produce the tides, 9.3.4 Combined effect of the Moon and the Sun producing tides, 9.4 Discussion of some tidal characteristics not clarified by the equilibrium theory, 9.4.1 Effect of Coriolis acceleration on the tide (13 pp.)

Lesson 15: 9.4.2 The dynamic theory The prediction of the tide by the decomposition and reconstruction of the tide diagrams: the harmonic analysis, 9.5 The tide prediction, 9.6 The cotidal lines, 9.7 Tidal currents, Annex - The tides in Venice Value of the harmonic constants, of the tide and of the tidal current, 9.8 The meteorological tides the high waters (13 pp.)END OF PROGRAM 6 credits

3 additional credits for the Students of Engineering for the Environment and the Territory, total 21 hours of lectures

Lesson 16: Solid transport. 20.1 General considerations. 20.2 Characteristics of the materials transported. 20.3 Critical conditions: start of solid transport. 20.4 Solid transport to the bottom. 20.5 The Einstein equation for the solid flow at the bottom (overview). 20.6 Other formulas for cross-country transport (15 pp.) (Handouts on Elly)

Lesson 17: 20.7 The diffusion-dispersion equation. 20.8 Solid transport in suspension. 20.9 Total solid transport. 20.10 The modeling of the fund. 20.11 The equation of the underlying mobile layer (15 pp.) (Handouts on Elly)

Lesson 18: Chapter 10 - Coastal dynamics, 10.1 Premise, 10.2 The natural modeling of thin beaches, 10.3 The wave motion in the area off the breakers (offshore) (12 pp.)

Lesson 19: 10.4 The motion of the water in the zone of the breakers (surf-zone), 10.4.1 The currents along the shore (longshore), 10.5 The transverse transport, 10.5.1 The action of the dead sea waves, 10.5.2 The action of sea waves (sea storm) (13 pp.)

Lesson 20: 10.5.3 The equilibrium profiles, 10.6 Transport along the shore, 10.6.1 The flow of transport along the shore, 10.6.2 The quantities of sediment carried along the shore, 10.7 The balance of beach sediments, 10.8 Monitoring as primary knowledge medium, 10.8.1 Monitoring mode (14 pp.)Exercise 4: quick calculation of currents along the coast. Calculation of the potential solid transport based on wave statistics.

Lesson 21: Dimensional Analysis Criteria. Physical homogeneity criterion and Buckingham's theorem. Dimensional groups of fluid mechanics. (notes on Elly)

Lesson 22: Theory of similarity. The conditions of similarity from Dimensional Analysis. Direct analysis. Critique of Similitude Theory in Fluid Mechanics. (notes on Elly)

Lesson 23: Geometric similarity. Kinematic similarity. Dynamic similarity. The similarity of Euler, Reynolds, Mach, Froude. The similarity in cavitation. Inclined models. Distorted models. Models of interaction between fluid and structure. Similitude in wave-like motions. (handouts on Elly)

Lesson 24: The models of the coast with mobile bottom. The suggestions of the Italian Technical Instructions. (handouts on Elly)

Lesson 25: Models in the presence of solid transport. The modelling of the solid transport in the presence of wave motion. The similarity for the hydrodynamic forcer (waves and currents). The similarity for solid transport. The approximate similarity for solid transport. Effects scale to the approximate similarity for solid transport. Similitude with light sediment. The densimetric model of Froude. The model with unchanged density. (handouts on Elly)

6 CFU common to students of Civil Engineering (I module) and Engineering for the Environment and the Territory, total 42 hours of lectures

Lesson 1: Chapter 1 - Physical oceanography, 1.1 General knowledge, 1.2 ldrosphere, 1.2.1 Sea level, 1.2.2 Determination of the average sea level, 1.2.3 Surveyof the sea floor, 1.3 Sea water, 1.4 The Nautical Charts (13 pp.)

Lesson 2: Chapter 2 - Generation and characteristics of the winds - Traverses, 2.1 Introduction, 2.2 Definitions, 2.3 Wind generation, 2.4 Geostrophic wind. Gradient wind. Real wind, 2.5 Wind on the surface for wave prediction, 2.5.1 Trend of the long vertical velocity, 2.5.2 Correction for air-sea temperature difference, 2.6 Wind force factor (14 pp.)

Lesson 3: Chapter 3 - Information on winds and waves, 3.1 Introduction, 3.2 Wind field on the wave generation area Definition of fetch, 3.3 Wind field evaluation, 3.3.1 Wind direction, 3.3.2 Wind speed, 3.3.3 Wind duration, 3.3.4 Fetch length, 3.4 Evaluation of wind characteristics, 3.5 Wind and sea data in Italy, 3.5.1 Collecting anemological data, 3.6 Data availability for waves (15 pp.)Lesson 4: Chapter 4 - Wind-generated waves, 4.1 Wind-wave generation, 4.2 Sea wave surface, 4.3 Wave-length distribution function, 4.4 Wave-wave distribution function (12 pp.)

Exercise 1: calculation of fetch, effective fetch. Calculation of wave height based on wind data. Reconstruction of wave and wind statistics: dominant wind, reigning.

Lesson 5: 4.5 Wave energy spectrum (frequency domain analysis), 4.6 Common energy spectra, 4.7 Directional wave spectrum (12 pp.)

Lesson 6: Chapter 5 - Wave Description and Analysis, 5 1 Premises, 5 1 1 Point-based methods, 5 1 2 Global-scale methods, 5 2 Geographical transposition of wave-wave data, 5 2 1 Application of method with transposition of the data of the wave climate from the buoy of Crotone to the town of Taranto (12 pp.)Lesson 7: Chapter 6 - Statistics of extreme values of wave heights, 6.1 Annual average wave climate, 6.2 Extreme wave climate, 6.2.1 Analysis of extreme values of significant heights (11 pp.)

Lesson 8: 6.2.2 The Goda method, 6.2.3 Forecasting sea states over time using the equivalent triangular storm concept, 6.3 Project life and probability of occurrence, 6.4 Using the spread parameter in poor areas of wave data (12 pp.)

Lesson 9: Chapter 7 - Regular Wave Mechanics, 7.1 Introduction, 7.2 Wave Classification, 7.3 Fundamental Equation of Variable to Potential Motion, 7.3.1 The Boundary Conditions, 7.4 Theory of the Small-Width Progressive Wave, 7.5 Relationship of linear dispersion (progressive wave), 7.6 Relative depth (13 pp.)

Lesson 10: 7.7 The stationary wave, 7.8 Wave groups, 7.9 Wave energy, 7.10 The average flow of energy or wave power, 7.11 The theory of finite amplitude wave - Nonlinear theory, 7.11. 1 Stokes theory of higher order, 7.11.2 The theory of the long wave (L / H »1) (12 pp.)

Exercise 2: zero-crossing analysis, statistics of ridges and cables, statistics of periods, calculation of mean water level.

Lesson 11: Chapter 8 - Transformation of the waves in the propagation, 8.1 Premise, 8.2 Processes to which the wave is subject, 8.3 Shoaling, 8.4 Refraction, 8.4.1 The case of straight and parallel bathymetric, 8.4.2 irregular bathymetric, 8.4.3 Graphical construction of the wave plane (14 pp.)Lesson 12: 8.5 Diffraction, 8.6 Diffraction and refraction combined, 8.7 Fraction (13 pp.)

Lesson 13: 8.7.1 Distribution function in the area of the breakers, 8.8 Set-down and set-up, 8.9 Radiation stress, 8.10 Reflection, 8.10.1 Reflection of vertical waterproof walls, 8.10.2 Reflections in a closed basin (resonance or re-attacks) (11 pp.)

Exercise 3: statistics of extremes. Calculation of the project wave.

Lesson 14: Chapter 9 - Tides, 9.1 Introduction, 9.2 Tides and harmonic analyzes General information, 9.3 Tidal balance theory, 9.3.1 Earth-Moon-Sun system characteristics, 9.3.2 The forces producing the tide, 9.3. 3 Relative effect of the Moon and the Sun which produce the tides, 9.3.4 Combined effect of the Moon and the Sun producing tides, 9.4 Discussion of some tidal characteristics not clarified by the equilibrium theory, 9.4.1 Effect of Coriolis acceleration on the tide (13 pp.)

Lesson 15: 9.4.2 The dynamic theory The prediction of the tide by the decomposition and reconstruction of the tide diagrams: the harmonic analysis, 9.5 The tide prediction, 9.6 The cotidal lines, 9.7 Tidal currents, Annex - The tides in Venice Value of the harmonic constants, of the tide and of the tidal current, 9.8 The meteorological tides the high waters (13 pp.)END OF PROGRAM 6 credits

3 additional credits for the Students of Engineering for the Environment and the Territory, total 21 hours of lectures

Lesson 16: Solid transport. 20.1 General considerations. 20.2 Characteristics of the materials transported. 20.3 Critical conditions: start of solid transport. 20.4 Solid transport to the bottom. 20.5 The Einstein equation for the solid flow at the bottom (overview). 20.6 Other formulas for cross-country transport (15 pp.) (Handouts on Elly)

Lesson 17: 20.7 The diffusion-dispersion equation. 20.8 Solid transport in suspension. 20.9 Total solid transport. 20.10 The modeling of the fund. 20.11 The equation of the underlying mobile layer (15 pp.) (Handouts on Elly)

Lesson 18: Chapter 10 - Coastal dynamics, 10.1 Premise, 10.2 The natural modeling of thin beaches, 10.3 The wave motion in the area off the breakers (offshore) (12 pp.)

Lesson 19: 10.4 The motion of the water in the zone of the breakers (surf-zone), 10.4.1 The currents along the shore (longshore), 10.5 The transverse transport, 10.5.1 The action of the dead sea waves, 10.5.2 The action of sea waves (sea storm) (13 pp.)

Lesson 20: 10.5.3 The equilibrium profiles, 10.6 Transport along the shore, 10.6.1 The flow of transport along the shore, 10.6.2 The quantities of sediment carried along the shore, 10.7 The balance of beach sediments, 10.8 Monitoring as primary knowledge medium, 10.8.1 Monitoring mode (14 pp.)Exercise 4: quick calculation of currents along the coast. Calculation of the potential solid transport based on wave statistics.

Lesson 21: Dimensional Analysis Criteria. Physical homogeneity criterion and Buckingham's theorem. Dimensional groups of fluid mechanics. (notes on Elly)

Lesson 22: Theory of similarity. The conditions of similarity from Dimensional Analysis. Direct analysis. Critique of Similitude Theory in Fluid Mechanics. (notes on Elly)

Lesson 23: Geometric similarity. Kinematic similarity. Dynamic similarity. The similarity of Euler, Reynolds, Mach, Froude. The similarity in cavitation. Inclined models. Distorted models. Models of interaction between fluid and structure. Similitude in wave-like motions. (handouts on Elly)

Lesson 24: The models of the coast with mobile bottom. The suggestions of the Italian Technical Instructions. (handouts on Elly)

Lesson 25: Models in the presence of solid transport. The modelling of the solid transport in the presence of wave motion. The similarity for the hydrodynamic forcer (waves and currents). The similarity for solid transport. The approximate similarity for solid transport. Effects scale to the approximate similarity for solid transport. Similitude with light sediment. The densimetric model of Froude. The model with unchanged density. (handouts on Elly).

## Recommended readings

Slides of the lectures

Tomasicchio, U., 1998. Port and Coastal Engineering Manual, BIOS, ISBN 88-7740-243-1

Insight:

Longo, S., 2011. Notes on Maritime Hydraulics - Part 1. Eliophototecnica Barbieri Parma, ISBN 978-88-64450-18-6

Longo, S., 2011, Dimensional Analysis and Physical Modeling - Principles and Applications in Engineering Sciences. Springer & Verlag Italy, UNITEXT Engineering Series. ISBN 978-88-470-1871-6

Slides of the lectures

Tomasicchio, U., 1998. Port and Coastal Engineering Manual, BIOS, ISBN 88-7740-243-1

Insight:

Longo, S., 2011. Notes on Maritime Hydraulics - Part 1. Eliophototecnica Barbieri Parma, ISBN 978-88-64450-18-6

Longo, S., 2011, Dimensional Analysis and Physical Modeling - Principles and Applications in Engineering Sciences. Springer & Verlag Italy, UNITEXT Engineering Series. ISBN 978-88-470-1871-6

## Teaching methods

The theoretical part of the course will be illustrated through lectures using a tablet PC connected to a video projector, used as an electronic board. The lectures will be complemented by educational videos. A part of the course is reserved for analytical and numerical exercises.

The teaching materials used during the lessons should be uploaded to Elly at the beginning of the year, with any updates during the year communicated to the students by e-mail.

The course slides do not replace the textbook, but are considered an effective aid to preparation.

The theoretical part of the course will be illustrated through lectures using a tablet PC connected to a video projector, used as an electronic board. The lectures will be complemented by educational videos. A part of the course is reserved for analytical and numerical exercises.

The teaching materials used during the lessons should be uploaded to Elly at the beginning of the year, with any updates during the year communicated to the students by e-mail.

The course slides do not replace the textbook, but are considered an effective aid to preparation.

## Assessment methods and criteria

The examination is based on an oral exam. Three questions for a maximum 0.5 h.Evaluation elements: theoretical questions (knowledge and understanding), 50%; application of the theory or application examples (skills, independence of judgment), 35%; exposure properties (communication skills), 15%.

The vote is in thirtieths and will be communicated immediately to the candidate.

The material useful to support the test consists of the textbook, the material provided during the exercises, the slides presented in class.

The examination is based on an oral exam. Three questions for a maximum 0.5 h.Evaluation elements: theoretical questions (knowledge and understanding), 50%; application of the theory or application examples (skills, independence of judgment), 35%; exposure properties (communication skills), 15%.

The vote is in thirtieths and will be communicated immediately to the candidate.

The material useful to support the test consists of the textbook, the material provided during the exercises, the slides presented in class.

## Other informations

Lectures attendance is highly recommended.

Lectures attendance is highly recommended.