# ENVIRONMENTAL AND COASTAL HYDRAULICS (MODULE 1)

## Learning outcomes of the course unit

Knowledge and ability to understand:At the end of the course of the course the student will have to know the main theoretical aspects for the study of coastal processes.Skills:The student must be able to describe the physical process with the use of mathematical analysis; to identify the process parameters by separating them from the variables; to solve the application cases, carrying out checks to the advantage of security.Autonomy of judgment:The student must possess the tools to critically evaluate the applicability of the acquired models or the need to resort to more advanced and detailed models.Communication skills:The student must possess the ability to clearly present the results of the analysis, both orally and in writing, also through the use of tables and graphs.

The student will have to improve the ability to learn, transforming the already acquired skills of understanding theory into the ability to learn the applicative aspects.

Knowledge and ability to understand:At the end of the course of the course the student will have to know the main theoretical aspects for the study of coastal processes.Skills:The student must be able to describe the physical process with the use of mathematical analysis; to identify the process parameters by separating them from the variables; to solve the application cases, carrying out checks to the advantage of security.Autonomy of judgment:The student must possess the tools to critically evaluate the applicability of the acquired models or the need to resort to more advanced and detailed models.Communication skills:The student must possess the ability to clearly present the results of the analysis, both orally and in writing, also through the use of tables and graphs.

The student will have to improve the ability to learn, transforming the already acquired skills of understanding theory into the ability to learn the applicative aspects.

## Prerequisites

Hydraulics, Differential analysis, Geometry, Rational Mechanics, Physics.

Hydraulics, Differential analysis, Geometry, Rational Mechanics, Physics.

## Course contents summary

The course provides the student with advanced concepts of Hydraulics and Fluid Mechanics in coastal processes. The student is able to solve some technical problems of Environmental Hydraulics, with the application of conceptual models, numerical and physical models. Five numerical exercises are planned in order to concretely demonstrate some aspects of the topics covered. A visit to the Hydraulics laboratory is scheduled.

The course provides the student with advanced concepts of Hydraulics and Fluid Mechanics in coastal processes. The student is able to solve some technical problems of Environmental Hydraulics, with the application of conceptual models, numerical and physical models. Five numerical exercises are planned in order to concretely demonstrate some aspects of the topics covered. A visit to the Hydraulics laboratory is scheduled.

## Course contents

6 CFU common to students of Civil Engineering (I module) and Engineering for the Environment and the Territory, total 42 hours of lectures

Lesson 1: Chapter 1 - Physical oceanography, 1.1 General knowledge, 1.2 ldrosphere, 1.2.1 Sea level, 1.2.2 Determination of the average sea level, 1.2.3 Surveyof the sea floor, 1.3 Sea water, 1.4 The Nautical Charts (13 pp.)

Lesson 2: Chapter 2 - Generation and characteristics of the winds - Traverses, 2.1 Introduction, 2.2 Definitions, 2.3 Wind generation, 2.4 Geostrophic wind. Gradient wind. Real wind, 2.5 Wind on the surface for wave prediction, 2.5.1 Trend of the long vertical velocity, 2.5.2 Correction for air-sea temperature difference, 2.6 Wind force factor (14 pp.)

Lesson 3: Chapter 3 - Information on winds and waves, 3.1 Introduction, 3.2 Wind field on the wave generation area Definition of fetch, 3.3 Wind field evaluation, 3.3.1 Wind direction, 3.3.2 Wind speed, 3.3.3 Wind duration, 3.3.4 Fetch length, 3.4 Evaluation of wind characteristics, 3.5 Wind and sea data in Italy, 3.5.1 Collecting anemological data, 3.6 Data availability for waves (15 pp.)Lesson 4: Chapter 4 - Wind-generated waves, 4.1 Wind-wave generation, 4.2 Sea wave surface, 4.3 Wave-length distribution function, 4.4 Wave-wave distribution function (12 pp.)

Exercise 1: calculation of fetch, effective fetch. Calculation of wave height based on wind data. Reconstruction of wave and wind statistics: dominant wind, reigning.

Lesson 5: 4.5 Wave energy spectrum (frequency domain analysis), 4.6 Common energy spectra, 4.7 Directional wave spectrum (12 pp.)

Lesson 6: Chapter 5 - Wave Description and Analysis, 5 1 Premises, 5 1 1 Point-based methods, 5 1 2 Global-scale methods, 5 2 Geographical transposition of wave-wave data, 5 2 1 Application of method with transposition of the data of the wave climate from the buoy of Crotone to the town of Taranto (12 pp.)Lesson 7: Chapter 6 - Statistics of extreme values of wave heights, 6.1 Annual average wave climate, 6.2 Extreme wave climate, 6.2.1 Analysis of extreme values of significant heights (11 pp.)

Lesson 8: 6.2.2 The Goda method, 6.2.3 Forecasting sea states over time using the equivalent triangular storm concept, 6.3 Project life and probability of occurrence, 6.4 Using the spread parameter in poor areas of wave data (12 pp.)

Lesson 9: Chapter 7 - Regular Wave Mechanics, 7.1 Introduction, 7.2 Wave Classification, 7.3 Fundamental Equation of Variable to Potential Motion, 7.3.1 The Boundary Conditions, 7.4 Theory of the Small-Width Progressive Wave, 7.5 Relationship of linear dispersion (progressive wave), 7.6 Relative depth (13 pp.)

Lesson 10: 7.7 The stationary wave, 7.8 Wave groups, 7.9 Wave energy, 7.10 The average flow of energy or wave power, 7.11 The theory of finite amplitude wave - Nonlinear theory, 7.11. 1 Stokes theory of higher order, 7.11.2 The theory of the long wave (L / H »1) (12 pp.)

Exercise 2: zero-crossing analysis, statistics of ridges and cables, statistics of periods, calculation of mean water level.

Lesson 11: Chapter 8 - Transformation of the waves in the propagation, 8.1 Premise, 8.2 Processes to which the wave is subject, 8.3 Shoaling, 8.4 Refraction, 8.4.1 The case of straight and parallel bathymetric, 8.4.2 irregular bathymetric, 8.4.3 Graphical construction of the wave plane (14 pp.)Lesson 12: 8.5 Diffraction, 8.6 Diffraction and refraction combined, 8.7 Fraction (13 pp.)

Lesson 13: 8.7.1 Distribution function in the area of the breakers, 8.8 Set-down and set-up, 8.9 Radiation stress, 8.10 Reflection, 8.10.1 Reflection of vertical waterproof walls, 8.10.2 Reflections in a closed basin (resonance or re-attacks) (11 pp.)

Exercise 3: statistics of extremes. Calculation of the project wave.

Lesson 14: Chapter 9 - Tides, 9.1 Introduction, 9.2 Tides and harmonic analyzes General information, 9.3 Tidal balance theory, 9.3.1 Earth-Moon-Sun system characteristics, 9.3.2 The forces producing the tide, 9.3. 3 Relative effect of the Moon and t

6 CFU common to students of Civil Engineering (I module) and Engineering for the Environment and the Territory, total 42 hours of lectures

Lesson 1: Chapter 1 - Physical oceanography, 1.1 General knowledge, 1.2 ldrosphere, 1.2.1 Sea level, 1.2.2 Determination of the average sea level, 1.2.3 Surveyof the sea floor, 1.3 Sea water, 1.4 The Nautical Charts (13 pp.)

Lesson 2: Chapter 2 - Generation and characteristics of the winds - Traverses, 2.1 Introduction, 2.2 Definitions, 2.3 Wind generation, 2.4 Geostrophic wind. Gradient wind. Real wind, 2.5 Wind on the surface for wave prediction, 2.5.1 Trend of the long vertical velocity, 2.5.2 Correction for air-sea temperature difference, 2.6 Wind force factor (14 pp.)

Lesson 3: Chapter 3 - Information on winds and waves, 3.1 Introduction, 3.2 Wind field on the wave generation area Definition of fetch, 3.3 Wind field evaluation, 3.3.1 Wind direction, 3.3.2 Wind speed, 3.3.3 Wind duration, 3.3.4 Fetch length, 3.4 Evaluation of wind characteristics, 3.5 Wind and sea data in Italy, 3.5.1 Collecting anemological data, 3.6 Data availability for waves (15 pp.)Lesson 4: Chapter 4 - Wind-generated waves, 4.1 Wind-wave generation, 4.2 Sea wave surface, 4.3 Wave-length distribution function, 4.4 Wave-wave distribution function (12 pp.)

Exercise 1: calculation of fetch, effective fetch. Calculation of wave height based on wind data. Reconstruction of wave and wind statistics: dominant wind, reigning.

Lesson 5: 4.5 Wave energy spectrum (frequency domain analysis), 4.6 Common energy spectra, 4.7 Directional wave spectrum (12 pp.)

Lesson 6: Chapter 5 - Wave Description and Analysis, 5 1 Premises, 5 1 1 Point-based methods, 5 1 2 Global-scale methods, 5 2 Geographical transposition of wave-wave data, 5 2 1 Application of method with transposition of the data of the wave climate from the buoy of Crotone to the town of Taranto (12 pp.)Lesson 7: Chapter 6 - Statistics of extreme values of wave heights, 6.1 Annual average wave climate, 6.2 Extreme wave climate, 6.2.1 Analysis of extreme values of significant heights (11 pp.)

Lesson 8: 6.2.2 The Goda method, 6.2.3 Forecasting sea states over time using the equivalent triangular storm concept, 6.3 Project life and probability of occurrence, 6.4 Using the spread parameter in poor areas of wave data (12 pp.)

Lesson 9: Chapter 7 - Regular Wave Mechanics, 7.1 Introduction, 7.2 Wave Classification, 7.3 Fundamental Equation of Variable to Potential Motion, 7.3.1 The Boundary Conditions, 7.4 Theory of the Small-Width Progressive Wave, 7.5 Relationship of linear dispersion (progressive wave), 7.6 Relative depth (13 pp.)

Lesson 10: 7.7 The stationary wave, 7.8 Wave groups, 7.9 Wave energy, 7.10 The average flow of energy or wave power, 7.11 The theory of finite amplitude wave - Nonlinear theory, 7.11. 1 Stokes theory of higher order, 7.11.2 The theory of the long wave (L / H »1) (12 pp.)

Exercise 2: zero-crossing analysis, statistics of ridges and cables, statistics of periods, calculation of mean water level.

Lesson 11: Chapter 8 - Transformation of the waves in the propagation, 8.1 Premise, 8.2 Processes to which the wave is subject, 8.3 Shoaling, 8.4 Refraction, 8.4.1 The case of straight and parallel bathymetric, 8.4.2 irregular bathymetric, 8.4.3 Graphical construction of the wave plane (14 pp.)Lesson 12: 8.5 Diffraction, 8.6 Diffraction and refraction combined, 8.7 Fraction (13 pp.)

Lesson 13: 8.7.1 Distribution function in the area of the breakers, 8.8 Set-down and set-up, 8.9 Radiation stress, 8.10 Reflection, 8.10.1 Reflection of vertical waterproof walls, 8.10.2 Reflections in a closed basin (resonance or re-attacks) (11 pp.)

Exercise 3: statistics of extremes. Calculation of the project wave.

Lesson 14: Chapter 9 - Tides, 9.1 Introduction, 9.2 Tides and harmonic analyzes General information, 9.3 Tidal balance theory, 9.3.1 Earth-Moon-Sun system characteristics, 9.3.2 The forces producing the tide, 9.3. 3 Relative effect of the Moon and the Sun

## Recommended readings

Slides of the lectures

Tomasicchio, U., 1998. Port and Coastal Engineering Manual, BIOS, ISBN 88-7740-243-1

Insight:

Longo, S., 2011. Notes on Maritime Hydraulics - Part 1. Eliophototecnica Barbieri Parma, ISBN 978-88-64450-18-6

Longo, S., 2011, Dimensional Analysis and Physical Modeling - Principles and Applications in Engineering Sciences. Springer & Verlag Italy, UNITEXT Engineering Series. ISBN 978-88-470-1871-6

Slides of the lectures

Tomasicchio, U., 1998. Port and Coastal Engineering Manual, BIOS, ISBN 88-7740-243-1

Insight:

Longo, S., 2011. Notes on Maritime Hydraulics - Part 1. Eliophototecnica Barbieri Parma, ISBN 978-88-64450-18-6

Longo, S., 2011, Dimensional Analysis and Physical Modeling - Principles and Applications in Engineering Sciences. Springer & Verlag Italy, UNITEXT Engineering Series. ISBN 978-88-470-1871-6

## Teaching methods

The theoretical part of the course will be illustrated through lectures using a tablet PC connected to a video projector, used as an electronic board. The lectures will be complemented by educational videos. A part of the course is reserved for analytical and numerical exercises.

The teaching materials used during the lessons should be uploaded to Elly at the beginning of the year, with any updates during the year communicated to the students by e-mail.

The course slides do not replace the textbook, but are considered an effective aid to preparation.

The theoretical part of the course will be illustrated through lectures using a tablet PC connected to a video projector, used as an electronic board. The lectures will be complemented by educational videos. A part of the course is reserved for analytical and numerical exercises.

The teaching materials used during the lessons should be uploaded to Elly at the beginning of the year, with any updates during the year communicated to the students by e-mail.

The course slides do not replace the textbook, but are considered an effective aid to preparation.

## Assessment methods and criteria

The examination is based on an oral exam. Three questions for a maximum 0.5 h.Evaluation elements: theoretical questions (knowledge and understanding), 50%; application of the theory or application examples (skills, independence of judgment), 35%; exposure properties (communication skills), 15%.

The vote is in thirtieths and will be communicated immediately to the candidate.

The material useful to support the test consists of the textbook, the material provided during the exercises, the slides presented in class.

The examination is based on an oral exam. Three questions for a maximum 0.5 h.Evaluation elements: theoretical questions (knowledge and understanding), 50%; application of the theory or application examples (skills, independence of judgment), 35%; exposure properties (communication skills), 15%.

The vote is in thirtieths and will be communicated immediately to the candidate.

The material useful to support the test consists of the textbook, the material provided during the exercises, the slides presented in class.

## Other informations

Lectures attendance is highly recommended.

Lectures attendance is highly recommended.