Clinical and biochemical analyses
Learning outcomes of the course unit
This course aims to provide the informations and the scientific underground to approach correctly the main topics in Clinical Biochemistry by students of pharmaceutical sciences.
This knowledge is needed especially by a professional like the chemist which is at the connection between patients and medical structures; in this context , appropriate communicative skills are needed to explain the results of biochemical lab analysis and to orientate patients between many specific diagnostic devices and tools for specimen’s collection, treatment and managing commonly available in the chemist shop.
There are no obligatory prerequisites, but Clinical Biochemistry is an interdisciplinary science and needs the basic knowledge in Biology, Anatomy, Physiology, Chemistry and Biochemistry
Course contents summary
Pre-analytical, analytical and post-analytical variability. Types of biological samples and optimal procedures to collect them. Variables affecting laboratory data
The concept of normal values in biology and the risk functions (normal values stated by statistical calculations or by biological observations; desirable values and risk function; decisional values for diagnostic or therapeutic purpose).
Interpretation of the complete urinalysis test.
Interpretation of enzymatic and iso-enzymatic tests like auxiliary diagnostic tool in some specific organ disease.
Laboratory test modifications by diseases affecting purine metabolism.
Laboratory test modifications by diseases affecting the hydro-electrolyte balance.
Interpreting the variations of acid-base parameters and possible pathological conditions.
Interpretation of the modifications of plasma protein profile.
Part 1. General Clinical Chemistry.
Biological specimens consideration: instruction for optimal collection, treatment and conservation (avoiding pre-analytical variation).
Part 2. Analysis of biological samples; analytical techniques and instrumentations.
The main analytical techniques and instrumentations to evaluate the molecules of interest in Clinical Chemistry. Analytical and post-analytical variability affecting the laboratory data. Clinical laboratory quality assurance. Kits for diagnostic tests.
Part 3. Current waived test.
Point of care testing (POCT): use and application. Criteria for test waiving. Quality control in POCT. Implementation and monitoring of POCT. Specimen and its treatment in POCT. Places of POCT utilization. Auto-monitoring of some biochemical parameters.
Part 4. Application of POCT
Control of glycemia; Diabetes and patient auto-monitoring. Lipid metabolism diseases; POCT for blood triglycerides, cholesterol and lipoprotein analysis; auto-monitoring and cardiovascular risk.
Part 5. Outline of Clinical Biochemistry
Markers of function or damage of some organs and systems. Index of cytolysis, clinical enzymology. Main cardiac, hepatic and renal markers
- Antonozzi I., Gulletta E. Medicina di Laboratorio, Logica e Patologia Clinica. 3 Ed.
The course mainly uses lectures, but structured in such a way that every necessary illustration of the fundamental topics of Clinical Biochemistry is followed by simulations of situations that may arise during the professional activity, depending on the different types of activity (rural, urban, hospital , laboratory of analysis).
Consistently with the time available, we will try to make the student familiar with the available databases for an independent update on the topics of Laboratory Medicine and, possibly, bringing small groups to visit facilities where a Clinical Biochemical analysis laboratory is operating.
Assessment methods and criteria
The final oral examination is about the topics of the course; the student needs to demonstrate to have understood and to be able to manage the essential meanings of every section of the program.
The material used for the preparation of the educational activities (slides, texts other than the reference ones, different sources accessible on the Internet, etc.) is explained during the lessons and is available upon request by the student.