LABORATORY ANALYSIS APPLIED TO SPORT
Learning outcomes of the course unit
The course includes three series of lectures, overall aimed at promoting the achievement of adequate information on (1) basic metrology, available instruments for the study of movement, data elaboration; (2) the most common laboratory exams for the characterization of major pathological processes of interest for people who practice exercise and for the evaluation of pathophysiological outcomes of exercise; (3) available methods for the study of the relationships between human microbiota and the host and for the diagnosis of infectious disease.
Basic notions of Physics, Biology, Biochemistry, Physiology and general Microbiology.
Course contents summary
The course will concern fundamentals of metrology, the most common instrumentation available for movement evaluation and the relative techniques, the main laboratory exams adopted to evaluate the effects of exercise on human health and to diagnose infectious diseases.
For Instrumentation for movement analysis:
A) Introduction to metrology
- Basic definitions
- Direct and indirect measures
- Measurement uncertainty
- Measuring scales
B) Instruments for movement analysis
- Optoelectronic system
- Dynamometric Systems
- Wearable sensors
C) Introduction and use of Microsoft Excel
For General Pathology and Diagnostics:
A) Elements of General Pathology
- Cell damage and death
- Acute and chronic inflammation
B) The complete blood count (CBC)
- The hematocrit and its alterations
C) Indicators of tissue damage
- Organ-specific and non-organ-specific indicators
- Acute phase reaction, CRP and VES
- Organ profiles
- Hepatic profile
- Indicators of overtraining
- EIB and anaphylaxis
- PEIS and immunocompetence
E) Diabetes Mellitus
- Physiopathological and biochemical bases
- The main types of DM
- The role of exercise in DM
- Esercise as the polypill
A) Human body and microbial populations
- The resident microbiota in humans.
- Host-parasite interactions.
- Host defenses against infectious agents.
- Innate and adaptive immunity.
B) Infectious disease
- General information on infectious diseases.
- Etiologic agents of infectious diseases: bacteria, fungi, protozoa, viruses.
- Transmission routes of infectious agents and their pathogenicity.
C) -Laboratory diagnosis of infectious diseases.
- Biological samples for the laboratory diagnosis of viral and microbial infections: sample collection, transport and storage.
- Microscopic examination, culture, antigen detection, nuclei acid amplification tests.
- Antibody detection.
For General Pathology:
- Antoniozzi, Gulletta (eds.)
Medicina di laboratorio
Logica & Patologia Clinica
III ed., Piccin, Padova, 2019
For Applied Microbiology:
- Madigan M.T., Martinko J.M., Stahl D.A., Clark D.P. BROCK. Biologia dei microrganismi 3 – Microbiologia biomedica. Pearson Italia, Milano-Torino, 2012.
For “Instrumentation for Movement Analysis” reference material will be provided during the lectures.
For all the modules, the slides shown during the lectures will be available on the Elly site.
Interactive lectures, supported by slides, will be used to explain and discuss the major points on the topics included in the Course.
Some of the lessons of the module "Strumenti per l'analisi del movimento" will concern the software Excel and will include practical simulations at the computer.
Assessment methods and criteria
Learning outcomes will be verified through an oral examination. A preventive written exam will concern the module "Strumenti per l'analisi del movimento" and will consist of 10 multiple choice questions plus a question with open response.
The oral exam will consist of two questions (one for Pathology, the other for Microbiology) from two different examiners. Both will concern topics listed in the detailed program of the course. The dialogue between the student and the examiners will be finalized in evaluating the knowledge acquired by the student and her/his ability of applying the acquired knowledge to situations of professional interest.
The final mark will be the mean of the three evaluations with the possibility of raising or lowering the final mark of a maximum of three votes depending on the appropriateness of the terms used and quality of the presentation.
Admission to the oral exam will require the successful passing of the written test. The outcome of the written test will be valid throughout all the exam sessions of the academic year. Failure in one of the questions at the oral exam will imply the repetition of the oral exam.