ANATOMY AND HISTOLOGY
Learning outcomes of the course unit
The course is designed to give the student the fundamental knowledge of the general anatomy with special emphasis on the locomotor and central and peripherical nervous systems, with the aim of understanding functions and pathological deseases, with also cystogical and molecular knowledge.
The target of the course is to make the student familiar and acquainted
with principles of macroscopic and topographical anatomy in order to: 1) become a not to be set aside load of
knowledge for a professional in the biomedical field; 2) acquire
propaedeucities which are fundamental for the comprehension of the
topics that will be matter the following courses; 3)acquire specific
competence that can result practically useful in the professional
environment. At the end of the course the student will be asked to be
able to express, in a proper technical language,the acquired anatomical
concepts and, in particular, the student will be asked to shows his/her
capacity in identifying organs by reading radiological images (Rx, TAC, NMR)
Basic concepts in chemistry and Physics. No specific propaedeucity required.
Course contents summary
First lessons are concerned on the general cytological and hystological features of different apparati and systems which compose the human body. The second part of the course is the study in depth of scheleton system, joints and muscles with physiologic hints.
The third part of the course is about of central and peripherical nervous system with particular mention of motoric and sensitive systems. Last general lessons deal with the other apparati of human body.
The first lessons will concern technical terminology, anatomical plans and general anatomical organization.The last and more extended part of the course will concern Macroscopic and topographical
anatomy with particular emphasis on the issues more relevant with the peculiar professional
profile of radiology technician namely the anatomical relationship of the human structures.
Surface Anatomy: head and neck, thorax, abdomen, limbs, pelvis.Locomotor SystemOverview of the Bones, Joints, Muscles.Axial : Skull, Spine, Thorax. temporo-mandibular joint, intervertebral joints, joints of the ribs. Muscles of the head and neck, Muscles of the back, Muscles of the abdomen wall, Muscles of the pelvic floor.Appendicular :The scapular girdle: bones, joints and muscles.Superior Limb: Clavicle, Scapula, Humerus, Radius, Ulna, Bones of the Hand. Joints: shoulder, elbow, wrist, hand. Muscles of the arm, Muscles of the wrist, Muscles of the fingers of the hand.Inferior Limb:Pelvis, Femur, Tibia, Fibula, Bones of the Foot. Joints: hip, knee, foot. Muscles of the pelvis, of the thigh, of the leg and the foot.SplancnologyOverview of the anatomy of the Cardiovascular, Respiratory, Digestive and Urogenital systems, with functional correlations.The Nervous System Gross anatomy and structure of the spinal cord and the brain-stem. The cerebellum: structure, afferent and efferent pathways. The thalamus and hypothalamus. The basal ganglia. The brain cortex: structure and areas. The motor and sensory pathways. Neuromuscular spindles and the proprioceptive system. Anatomical basis ofreflexes.Overview of the autonomic nervous system.Peripheral nervous System: the spinal nerves; the plexuses: cervical, brachial and lumbosacral (dorsal, ventral and collateral branches). The intercostal nerves. Dermatomery. Peripheral distribution of cranial nerves.
General organization of the human body systems and apparati.
Anatomical Terminology. Anatomical planes. Muscolo-skeletal apparatus:
classification of bones, joints and muscles. Cardiovascular system:
general organization of small and large circulation, gross anatomy of the
heart. Emo-lymphopoietic System: anatomical and histo-functional
organization of bone marrow, thymus, spleen, lymph node. Digestive
system: general organization. Macroscopic anatomy of the stomach, small
intestine, colon, liver and pancreas. Respiratory System: general
organization of the upper and lower airways. Macroscopic anatomy of the airways
lung. Urinary system: gross anatomy of the
kidney, ureter and urinary bladder. Renal vasculature. . Histo-functional correlations. Endocrine
System macroscopic antaomy of:pituitary gland, thyroid, adrenal glands and endocrine pancreas. Nervous system: general organization of the
brain, spinal cord and peripheral nerve plexi. Topographical anatomy of te main anatomical regions (head, neck, mediastinum,peritoneal cavity, retroperitoneal organs, pelvis, upper and lower limbs
Anatomia dell'Uomo 2° ed. (Ambrosi et al.) Ed. Edi-Ermes; Anatomia Umana (F.H. Martini) Ed. Edises P.
Anatomia dell'Apparato Locomotore (T. Barni) Ed. Edises P.
Anatomia (Macchiarelli et al.) ed Sorbona - Principi di Anatomia imana (Tortora e Nielsen) ed. Ambrosiana - Anatomia radiologica di Netter (Weber et al.) ed. Masson
The course is made by lectures with several slides and anatomical models, which can be avaible to the students in tutorials.
Class lectures. In particular will be exploited parallel projections of anatomical pictures with the corresponding radiological images (Rx, TAC, NMR).
Assessment methods and criteria
Oral examination. The ability to comply with questions on several topics
of the course will allow to check if the candidate has achieved enough
general knowledge to proceed further in the career and, more
specifically, his/her ability in identify the different organ in optic