Learning outcomes of the course unit
The course offers a topographic, economic and cultural framework of the Etruscans and the study in depth of some issues about this ancient civilization. At the end of the course, the students will know the different aspects and features of the Etruscans civilization.
Course contents summary
The history of the Etruscan studies: the discovery of the Etruscans between archaeology and political interests.
Etruscans and the Italic peoples: ancient Italy between Bronze Age and Iron Age. Transition from the protovillanovian to the villanovian period; transformations of the population, origin of the proto-urban centres and “formation” of the Etruscan ethnos. Cultures, languages and peoples of the pre-roman Italy. Etruscans and their relationships with the other italic peoples: commercial exchanges and cultural connections. Cultural and chronological periods.
History and culture of the Etruscans: Villanovian period: from the hut to the house and from the village to the town; early forms of social and political organization. Orientalising period: rise and consolidation of the aristocracies; the culture of the princes; palaces and big funerary architecture; different expressions of the aristocratic ideology. Archaic period: end of the aristocracies and coming of the demos; big works of urban monumentalising; cities and their harbours; relations with the oriental Greek Culture. Classic period: leadership of the inner Etruria and crisis of the coastal Etruria; the artistic problem and the relationships with Greece. Hellenistic period: the big “crisis” of the Fourth Century and the “coming-back” aristocracies; relations with Macedonia and Magna Graecia and last great season of the Etruscan culture. Impact with Rome and ending of the Etruscans. Etruscan language and writing. The Po Valley Etruria: during the lessons particular attention will be paid to the Etruscan presence in the Po Valley. The birth of the Etruscan centers of Bologna and Verucchio and the territorial development during the Villanova and Orientalizing phases. The gentle power between funeral practices and stone sculpture. The restructuring of the whole area of Padana during the 6th century. The foundation of new urban centers such as Marzabotto, Spina, Bagnolo San Vito (Mantua) and other smaller centers.
Those students attending classes:
1) G. Bartoloni (a cura di), Introduzione all'Etruscologia, Roma 2012.
2) M. Cristofani (a cura di), Gli Etruschi. Una nuova immagine a cura di, Firenze 1972 (o ristampe successive).
Those students not attending classes, also two of these books:
1) G. Colonna, Urbanistica e architettura, in AA.VV., Rasenna. Storia e civiltà degli Etruschi (a cura di G. Pugliese Carratelli), Milano 1987, pp. 371-530.
2) AA.VV., Bologna etrusca: le origini e la formazione; Bologna etrusca, l'apogeo urbano e il primato culturale, in G. Sassatelli-A.Donati (a cura di), Storia di Bologna, 1, Bologna nell'antichità, Bologna 2005, pp. 119-338.
3) E. Govi (a cura di), Marzabotto. Una città etrusca, Bologna 2007.
Teaching method consists in frontal lectures. Attending the lessons in highly recommended. During the lessons visual aids will be widely used, especially slides and projections from computer.
Assessment methods and criteria
The exam consists in an oral test concerning history, evolution of Etruscan culture and artistic productions. Familiarity and deep knowledge of indicated bibliography and of topics covered during lectures are required. Three general questions are the starting point of a more detailed discussion.
The overall evaluation will consider the following parameters:
an excellent knowledge of the topics, the ability to analyse themes, to refer them by using the field-specific terminology and to discuss specific issues critically, arguing their own opinion, will be rewarded with an excellent mark;
a mnemonic knowledge of the subject with the ability to analyse, with correct, although not always field-specific command of the language will be rewarded with a 'fair' mark;
minimal knowledge of the subject will not be enough to pass the exam.