PHYSIOPATHOLOGY, HUMAN SCIENCES AND GENERAL PATHOLOGY
Learning outcomes of the course unit
The objectives of course are to enable the acquisition of knowledge and understanding the mechanism of proliferation and cell death and their alteration in the biology of tumours, the pathogenesis of some human genetic and metabolic diseases with their related essential notions of semeiotic and medical terminology, the mechanism of innate and specific immune system, the pathogenesis of the main immunopathologic diseases.
The course aims to provide pointers to students to learn and understand, at a basic level, mechanisms of auditory sensory processing and knowledge on the basic operation of hearing aids and cochlear implant. The course aims to enable students to apply the learned knowledge in their future professional life.
Course contents summary
Notions of ethiology and pathology. General alteration of growth and death, cellular and molecular oncology. Genetic and metabolic diseases and general physiopathology.
Blood and hematopoiesis and components of innate and acquired immune system. General features of acute and chronic inflammation and immunopathology.
Within the integrated pathophysiology course, the physiology course aims to illustrate to students the functioning of the auditory system and how it processes acoustic sensory information, sounds and language.
Cellular Pathology and Physiopathology
Cellular alterations of growth and differentiation. Necrosis and apoptosis. Atrophy, hypertrophy, hyperplasia, metaplasia, dysplasia.
Definition, nomenclature, and biological properties of benign and malignant neoplasms. Molecular basis of cancer. Metastatic dissemination.
Blood and Hematopoiesis. Stem cells. Leukemia and lymphoma. Anemias. Transmission patterns of single-gene disorders. Examples of genetic disease. Chromosomal alterations.
Atherosclerosis, trombosis, angina and myocardial infarction.
General features of acute and chronic inflammation Vascular changes, cellular events and chemical mediators. Inflammatory exudate and systemic effects. Fever and hyperthermia. Chronic inflammation: classification, cytological features and granuloma. Tissue repair.
Diabetes mellitus and atherosclerosis.
Innate immunity. Acquired immunity. The structural and functional aspects of Antibodies. T and B lymphocytes and their receptors. The Major Histocompatibility System (MHC). Activation of B and T lymphocytes. Vaccinations. Basis of immunopathology.
After a brief introduction to Physiology the course will focus on the part of physiology called neurophysiology, particularly on the section necessary to learn about the basic mechanisms used by the nervous system to process sensory information, with special emphasis on the acoustic sensory processing. It will be shown how neurons are endowed with a unique capability to generate electric signals. How these electric signals can be smaller and local events, called local potentials, that participate in neuronal signal integration processing; or they can be larger events, called action potentials, that can carry the information to distant targets. These large electric signals can be transmitted to both other neurons or effectors such as muscles and glands through ultra-specialized structures called synapses, which can be electric or chemical.
Once understood these basic mechanisms, the course will then focus on how neurons process sensory information coming from the external world through sensory receptors and how they will carry these information to higher centers within the central nervous system. The final step will be to examine how neurons in the central nervous system will process stimuli coming from the external world and transform them into sensations and then perceptions. This will be achieved by examining how somatic sensory stimuli are processed by the somatosensory system and then how acoustic signals, such as sounds, vocalizations and language are processed within the auditory system.
Parola M. “Patologia Generale” EDISES
Pontieri G.M. “Elementi di Patologia Generale” III edizione PICCIN
Pontieri G.M. Patologia generale e Fisiopatologia generale. III edizione PICCIN
Purves Augustine et al. Neuroscienze, Zanichelli
Moruzzi, Fisiologia della vita di relazione, UTET
During the lectures the topics listed in the program will be presented and discussed trying to involve students with questions so they can actively participate to the lesson.
Assessment methods and criteria
Learning outcomes will be verified through an oral examination. Questions on the topics relating to the course will be used to test knowledge and understanding of the student in the scientific discipline, and her/his ability to apply such knowledge and understanding in occupational contexts.Failure to answer to one question, or proven inability to demonstrate at least a basic knowledge on the subject, will prevent the successful completion of the exam. Upon successful completion of the examination, the final grade will be decided jointly by the examiners, according to the degree of achievement of the objectives (excellent, good, fair, fully sufficient, barely sufficient). Honours will be reserved to students demonstrating particular communication skills and independent learning ability, together with an overall excellent evaluation.