Learning outcomes of the course unit
The course of Physics has been designed to convey knowledge and understanding of basic physics principles and their application in practice. The topics are geared to concrete analysis and research problems.
The course will provide the necessary tools to address issues of increasing complexity preparatory to other major disciplines of the degree course, such as Chemistry, Biology,
Physiology, Biochemistry, etc.. , which are based on physical phenomenology.
The course will also provide the conceptual basis for understanding a number of major technologies that with increasing frequency are used in medicine, such as: centrifuges, endoscopes, microscopes, transducers for ultrasound equipment, laser systems, radiology equipment and NMR, radiation detectors, etc. In this sense, the module also aims to develop the students' attitude towards independent study and continuing education on the application of physical techniques to diagnosis and therapy in medicine.
As its final, but perhaps most important, goal, the course has been designed to stimulate students to become more familiar with certain common concepts, that are not always sufficiently explained in previous study, such as: mechanical action between bodies in contact, exertion
and energy in action, dynamic aspects resulting from elastic force and impact, friction and thermal and thermodynamic aspects, static and dynamic properties of gaseous and liquid fluids, light and its manifestations, including in relation to the structure of the eye and its physical defects, fundamentals of electrical, magnetic and nuclear phenomena, the laws that govern potential and current, electromagnetic and nuclear radiation, detection and control.
IT module provides students with knowledge, theory, basic computer technologies
At the end of the course the student should be able to know the basic
characteristics of the computer, the network's potential with regard to
the sharing of resources and data access , software for writing and data
entry , accessing and updating of data on the database, filling out forms,
Describe the possible applications of PCs in medicine with regard to the
acquisition and analysis of signals and images, the management of the
department, the clinical decision support and teaching.
Use the basic tools of surfing the net to find the sources nursing
Critically analyze the sources nursing according to the criteria of
evidence based nursing.
The module of Medical Statistics is designed to introduce the student to
the basics of statistical thinking and its application in practice. The topics
are geared to concrete problems of analysis and research and deal in
particular with situations and cases drawn from the medical literature.
Starting from the multitude of information from which we are faced daily,
the course aims to give students the statistical tools needed to describe
and analyze the data, extract useful information and make informed
decisions. Special emphasis will be put on statistical reasoning,
interpretation and decision-making process. We will insist more on the
conceptual understanding that the mechanical calculation, especially in
light of the wide range of software available for analysis. The theory will
be made explicit by means of practical exercises and teaching cases,
therefore, the ultimate goal of the course is that the student learn "how
to do" as well as knowing.
Course contents summary
This integrated course aims to introduce the basic elements of Physics, of Physics applied to the medical and health field, of Statistics and of Information Technology to reach a unitary use of these disciplines
Physical quantitites and their measurement: Measurement of a physical
quantity - Dimensions and units – -Vector quantities.
- Fundamentals of dynamics: Principles of dynamics - Energy, work and
power - Weight force - Theorem of the kinetic energy - Conservative force
fields - Potential energy - Conservation of mechanical energy - Center of
mass and its properties - Conservation of the quantity of motion -
Moment of force - Overview of rigid body motion - Levers and the human
body – Balance - Elastic phenomena, Hooke’s law and elasticity modules -
Flexure and torsion - Elasticity of blood vessels and bones.
- Waves and acoustics: Wave motion, wave equation and characteristic
parameters - Interference and beats - Stationary waves - Resonance -
Diffraction and Huyghens principle - Sound and its characteristics -
Intensity, sensation, Weber-Fechner law - Doppler effect - Ultrasound and
its application in the biomedical field.
- Hydrostatics and hydrodynamics: Pressure, Pascal and Archimedes -
Atmospheric pressure and Torricelli’s barometer - Arterial pressure and
its measurement - Surface tension and Laplace’s formula - Capillarity and
Jurin’s law - Gaseous embolism - Pipe flow capacity - Ideal liquid and
Bernouilli’s theorem -Implications for blood flow - Real liquids and
viscosity - Laminar motion and Poiseuille’s theorem - Hydraulic resistance
- Stokes’ equation and sedimentation speed - Turbulent regime and
Reynolds number - Overview of cardiac work.
- Thermology and thermodynamics: Thermal dilation -Temperature and
heat - Laws of gas and absolute temperature - Equation of state of ideal
gases and approximation for real gases - Overview of the kinetic theory
of gases - Specific heats –Change of state and latent heat - Heat
propagation mechanisms -
Thermal machines and efficiency.
- Optics: Reflection and refraction - Total reflection and optical fiber -
Optical system, focus and dioptric power - Spherical diopter - Thin lenses,
mirrors and image construction - Compound microscope - Resolution
strength - The eye as a dioptric system - Principal ametropies of the eye
and their correction using lenses - Wave theory of light - Laser light.
- Electricity, magnetism and electrical current: Electrical charges and
Coulomb’s law - Electrical field - Work of the electrical field and
electrostatic potential -Overview of muscle fiber and
electrocardiogram - Gauss’s theorem and its applications - Current intensity - Overview of the
electronic structure of insulators, metallic conductors and semiconductors
- Ohm’s law - Series and parallel resistors – Electromotive
force - Thermal effect of current - Electrical conduction in liquids - Passing
of current in the human body -Thermoionic and photoelectric effects -
Magnetic field and its action on current and magnets - Electromagnetic induction -
Alternating voltage and current - Impedance -
- Radiation: Structure of the atom and nucleus - Quantum numbers,
electronic orbitals and transitions - Unstable isotopes and alpha, beta,
gamma radiation - Law of radioactive decay and half-life - Radiation
detection - Biomedical applications of radioisotopes - X-rays (production,
properties and absorption mechanisms in the matter) - Radiological
image - Overview of computerised axial tomography (CAT) and
radiofrequency (NMR) imaging techniques, PET and SPECT - Overview of radiation safety.
Short account of historical evolution from the first inventions in the 1600s
to the present Introduction to computer science and the use of
General concepts on the operating principles
Functional analysis of the structure of a processor
Hardware: CPU Memory I/O devices
Binary system and Boolean operators
Information (text, numbers, images, sounds) and its digital
Basic software and operating systems
Use of Excel to organize data and charting
Use of MS Word for reports
Notes on programs and algorithms
Local networks and geographical networks
Internet and its applications
Functional classification of application programs
Presentation of application programs for processing texts, presentations,
Use of the Internet network (navigation, electronic mail)
General concepts on the relationship between computer science and
Introduction to computer security, legal references and general concepts,
and a mention of the digital signature.
Introduction: medical statistics and related disciplines. Logic and
statistical planning. Overview of combinatorial analysis: permutations,
arrangements, combinations. Applications. Overview of probability
calculations: simple and compound probability, Bayes theorem.
Odds. Odds ratios. Likelihood ratios. applications.
Probability distributions : binomial distribution, Poisson distribution,
normal and standard normal distribution. Tables and their use.
Summarising data. Units of measure. Measurements of position, order
and variation. Indices of central tendency, mean median, mode.
Indices of variability, variance, standard deviation, CV. Percentiles and
General principles of statistical inference. Sampling distribution.
Hypothesis and hypothesis testing. Type 1 and type 2 error. Power of a
test and operating curve.
Power analysis and sample size determination.
Parametric test : Student t-test, ANOVA with 1 and 2 classification
Non-parametric test: Wilcoxon test, Mann-Whitney test, Kruskal-Wallis
test, Friedman test, median test, Chi-square test, Fisher exact test.
Linear regression and correlation. Multiple regression. Logistic regression.
Computer exercises with the software R, Jasp, Jamovi, and SPSS.
Bersani, Bettati, Biagi, Capozzi, Feroci, Lepore, Mita, Ortalli, Roberti,
Viglino, Vitturi: Fisica biomedica, Ed. Piccin Nuova Libraria (Padova).
Scannicchio: Fisica Biomedica, Ed. EdiSES (Napoli).
Introduzione ai sistemi informatici
D. Sciuto, G. Buonanno, W. Fornaciari, L. Mari,
Mc Graw Hill, 2004
M.M Triola, M.F. Triola : Fondamenti di Statistica, Ed. Pearson
W.W. Daniel : Biostatistica – Ed. Edises
A. Field. J. Miles, Z. Field : Discovering Statistics Using R, Ed. SAGE
During classroom lectures, the topics contained in the program will be illustrated and commented.
At the end of each topic classroom exercises explaining the application of the theory in practice will follow. The formal procedure and the step by
step execution of the necessary calculations will be described. Both manual solution and computer calculation will be shown.
Assessment methods and criteria
Written examination on the topics covered during the classroom lectures.
A part of the test will contain multiple choice questions and one part will contain open answer questions.
In this way, it will come
ascertained the student's knowledge and understanding, both
of theoretical principles and their applications.