Learning outcomes of the course unit
The student will have to demonstrate knowledge and understanding (1st Dublin descriptor) of the basic principles of Physiology. The course aims to provide students with a good understanding of:
1. Mechanisms for basic operation of the human body under physiological conditions,
2. Homeostatic mechanisms that allow adjusting and adapting the activity of organs and systems to the demands of the environment. The student shall be able to learn the principles of Physiology (5th Dublin descriptor), apply the acquired knowledge to the human body (2nd Dublin descriptor), must be able to independently assess simple physiological problems (3rd Dublin descriptor), and be able to communicate them (4th Dublin descriptor).
Knowledge of human anatomy, chemistry and physics as the lessons learned in previous courses
Course contents summary
The first part of the course covers cell physiology.
The second part of the course is devoted to the organ and system physiology.
The third part of the course is devoted to integrative physiology, with particular reference to the nervous system.
Biological membranes. Ion channels. Nernst equation. Membrane potential. Action potential. Conduction of potential. Synapses and neurotransmitters. Neuromodulators. Synaptic circuits. Skeletal muscle. Contraction. Stress / length and speed / load curves.
Smooth muscle. Heart: Cardiac action potentials. Electrocardiogram. Cardiac mechanics. Regulation of cardiac contraction. Blood pressure. Blood. Respiratory mechanics. Compliance. Capillary exchanges. Nervous control of breathing. Kidney. Filtration, absorption and secretion. Renal clearance. Regulation of pH and electrolyte balance. GI tract: motility, secretion, digestion and absorption. Endocrinology. Neurophysiology Sensory Systems: Vision. Hearing. Somatosensory systems. Pain perception and modulation. Motor control. Reflexes. Autonomic nervous system: sympathetic and parasympathetic. Hypothalamus and pituitary gland
Circulation and blood pressure. Smooth muscle. Lymphatic system. Special circulatory districts. Respiratory function. Kidney.
GI tract and its functions. Hormones.
Nerve cell functions. Membrane potential. Synapses. Reflexes. Sensory systems. Sleep. Homeostasis. Autonomous nervous system. Hypothalamus-hypophysis.
Skeletal muscle. Contraction. Stress / length and speed / load curves. Smooth muscle.
Heart: Cardiac action potentials. Electrocardiogram. Cardiac mechanics. Regulation of cardiac contraction. Blood pressure. Blood.
Respiratory mechanics. Compliance. Capillary exchanges. Nervous control of breathing.
Kidney. Filtration, absorption and secretion. Renal clearance.
Regulation of pH and electrolyte balance.
Gastroenteric system: motility, secretion and absorption.
Physiology the Nervous System
Functional properties of nervous cells: ionic channels, resting membrane potential and action potential. Mechanisms of synaptic transmission: neurotransmitters and receptors. Neuromuscular synapse. Spinal reflex: stretch reflex and flexor reflex. Sensory systems. Sensory transduction. Somatic system: anatomic and functional organization. Auditory function. Pain. Fundamental organization of Cerebral cortex. Somatic cortices. Fundamental concepts in visual physiology. Motor systems. Basal ganglia. The primary motor cortex. Cortical pathways to motor neurons. Neurophysiology of Sleep.Functional organization of the Autonomic nervous System. Sympathetic Division, Parasympathetic Division and the Enteric Division. Autonomic reflex. Functional organization of the Hypothalamus. Neuroendocrine System: Brain-pituitary-Organ Axes
"Neurofisiologia" di Battaglini, Faraguna, Fogassi e Rozzi. Casa Editric Edra
Monticelli, “Fisiologia”. CEA.
The lectures will take place in telepresence through the use of the platforms Teams and Elly. In particular, lessons will be conducted in both synchronous mode (connecting to the Teams platform) and asynchronous (uploaded on the Elly page of the course). During the lessons in synchronous (direct) mode, mainly frontal moments will alternate with interactive moments with the students. During the lessons, the principles of physiology will be explained and the main topics will be addressed with appropriate practical examples. During the lesson the students will be stimulated by the teacher to ask questions and comments both in synchronous mode (via microphone or chat) and in asynchronous mode via Elly.
Assessment methods and criteria
To take the exam it will be necessary to upload, before the date of the appeal, the identity document on Onedrive platform through the following link:
The exam will be in written form and will consist of 30 questions true/ false without penalty in case of errors. The knowledge acquired on the topics addressed during the lessons will be verified. Every correct answer will be assigned a point, there are no penalties. The minimum threshold for passing the exam is 18 points, corresponding to 18/30. The results will be published on the Esse3 portal within 72 hours from the date of the exam. The written test will be carried out using the Socrative platform: https://b.socrative.com/login/student/ .To enter, login as student and enter the room. When each student has answered the 30 questions the Socrative platform automatically generates the score of the exam so that the student will immediately have the result of his/her exam. To take the exam it will be essential to connect to Teams platform and it will be necessary, throughout the examination, keep on the audio/ video connections. Students will have 30 minutes to take the exam.
Before each exam, after the expiring of the dead line for registration, all students will receive an email by Essetre, with the necessary instructions for connecting to the links of Onedrive, Socrative and Teams.
For any clarification students can contact Prof. Maria Alessandra Umilta’ by email: email@example.com