Learning outcomes of the course unit
The objectives of the General Pathology course are to enable the acquisition of knowledge and understanding about etio-pathogenetic mechanisms of human diseases with their related essential notions of semeiotic and medical terminology and mechanisms and alterations of the innate and adaptive immune response. Great emphasis will be given to pathology, oncology and molecular immunology in order to allow the student to apply the knowledge gained to the understanding of the mechanisms of drug action and to acquire useful skills for future employment.Know how to communicate the learned knowledge clearly and without ambiguity to experts and not experts.
Course contents summary
Etiology. Cellular pathology. Molecular and Cellular Oncology. Immunology and Immunopathology. Acute and chronic inflammation. Tissue repair. Genetic, biochemistry, metabolic and endocrine Pathology. Pathophysiology of blood. Cardiovascular pathophysiology. Pathophysiology of respiratory and gastrointestinal apparatus.
Environmental Pathology. Radiation injury by ionizing and nonionizing radiation. Chemical injury. Nutrition and disease: nutritional deficiencies, vitamin deficiencies, obesity, food and cancer.
Intrinsic causes of disease. The molecular mechanisms of mutations and DNA repair. Transmission patterns of single-gene disorders. Disorders with multifactorial inheritance. Cytogenetic disorders.
Cellular alterations of growth and differentiation. Hyperplasia, hypertrophy, atrophy, metaplasia, dysplasia. Cellular aging. free radical pathology. Oxidative stress. Necrosis and apoptosis.
Neoplasia. Definitions and nomenclature. Benign and malignant neoplasms. Grading and staging of tumors. Molecular basis of cancer. Oncogenic DNA and RNA virus. Protooncogenes, oncogenes and oncoproteins. Tumor suppressor genes. Survival and pro-apoptoticc genes. DNA repair genes. Molecular basis of multistep carcinogenesis. Angiogenesis. Tumor progression. Invasion and metastasis. Chemical carcinogenesis: initiation and promotion. Carcinogenic chemicals. Radiation carcinogenesis. Microbial carcinogenesis. Genetic predisposition to cancer. Effects of tumours on the host. Nutritional and hormonal effects. Biological basis of anti-neoplastic therapies.
Immunology and immunopathology
Innate immunity. Acquired immunity. Antigens. The structural and functional aspects of Antibodies. T and B lymphocytes and their receptors. The Major Histocompatibility System (MHC). Activation of B and T lymphocytes. Anatomy of the immune response. The production of effectors of the immune response: antibodies, TH1, TH2, TC lymphocytes, cytokines.
Immunity to bacteria, virus and protozoa. Vaccinations. Infection with SARS-Cov-2 and COVID-19. and acquired Immunodeficiencies. Hypersensitivity. Immunologic tolerance and pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. Tumor immunology. Transplantation.
General features of acute inflammation: vascular changes, cellular events and chemical mediators. Types of acute inflammation. Systemic effects. Fever and hyperthermia. Chronic inflammation: types, morphologic features and granuloma. Tissue repair.
Blood and Hematopoiesis. Sickle cell disease. Iron deficiency anemia. Megaloblastic anemias. Thalassemia syndromes. Leukemia and lymphoma
Hemostasis. Trombosis, embolism, angina and myocardial infarction. Atherosclerosis. Hypertension and hypotension. Edema.
Disorders of the respiratory system
Obstructive pulmonary diseases. Emphysema. Chronic bronchitis. Asthma. Pulmonary infections
Disorders of the gastrointestinal system.
Gastroesophageal reflux disease. Acute and hgastritis. Peptic ulcer disease. Malabsorption syndromes. Celiac disease. Crohn disease.
Biochemical, metabolic and endocrine disorders
Disorders of the metabolism of amino acids. Pathogenesis of type1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Disorders of lipids circulation in the plasma. Familial hypercholesterolemia. Steatosis. Cystic fibrosis. Diseases by extracellular accumulation: amyloidosis, prion diseases. Disorders of the thyroid: hyper and ipo-thyroidism, thyroiditis.
Robbins e Cotran: Le Basi Patologiche delle Malattie. Elsevier VIII edizione.
Pontieri-Russo-Frati: Patologia Generale.Piccin IV edizione
Abbas A.K. e LIchtman: Le basi dell’ Immunologia. Fisiopatologia del Sistema Immunitario. MASSON Elsevier II edizione.
According to the regulation of the Italian Government and the University of Parma about the COVID-19 pandemics, the present course is realized with frontal lessons via mixed in-presence and at-distance modality. In particular, the teacher takes lessons in the classroom with the help of PC (Powerpoint slides) ; simultaneous connection of the PC to the Teams platform in streaming modality ensures connection with students not present in the classroom. Each lesson is registered and loaded in the Elly portal of the course, together with the slides.
The teacher is available for further explanations in office or by distance via Teams after e-mail appointment, or via chat on Elly platform.
Assessment methods and criteria
Learning outcomes will be verified through a multiple-choise written test followed by an oral examination. Through questions regarding the course content will be determined whether the student has achieved the goal of knowledge and understanding of the content and if he has reached the goal of applying the acquired knowledge. The student at the end of the course, using the knowledge acquired in other courses will need to demonstrate knowledge and understanding about the mechanisms etiopathogenetic of human diseases with their related essential symptoms and medical terminology.
In case the COVID-related sanitary emergence continues, the examination will proceed on the Teams platform (see the guidelines at the address: http://selma.unipr.it/).