DRUG ANALYSIS II
Learning outcomes of the course unit
The course is divided into theoretical lectures and practical exercises and has been designed to provide students with knowledge and understanding on the most useful analysis methods for separation, identification and purity control of the substances provided during the laboratory activities. Moreover, through the frequency of this course and through the individual study, students will have the ability to use knowledge and understanding acquired in order to identify the different organic, organometallic and inorganic substances reported in the Official Italian Pharmacopoeia and of the European Pharmacopoeia.
Students should have passed the Organic Chemistry examination to attend the Drug Analysis II laboratory.
Course contents summary
The first part of the program involves the study of the safety rules fundamental for work in a medicinal-chemistry lab.
The second part of the course concerns the study of a general part essential for the identification of the drugs in the Official Italian Pharmacopoeia and in the European Pharmacopoeia.
Finally, the third part of the program deals with specific methods of recognition of organic, organometallic and inorganic drugs.
Safety rules and elements of first aid in the chemical-pharmaceutical laboratory.
Explanation and use of the Official Italian Pharmacopoeia and of the European Pharmacopoeia.
Drug isolation and purification techniques: extraction using solvents, crystallisation, distillation, sublimation, chromatographic methods.
Measurement of physical constants: boiling point, fusion point, specific rotatory power.
Chromatographic techniques applied to drug recognition.
Spectrophotometric methods for drug identification.
Identification of organic substances: preliminary tests: organoleptic examination, behaviour during combustion, solubility, qualitative elementary analysis; recognition assays of the main functional groups and preparation of crystalline derivatives (amines, carbonyl compounds, carboxylic acids, alcohols, phenols, nitro compounds, carbohydrates, amino acids).
Recognition assays of organometallic and inorganic substances of pharmaceutical interest.
Recognition of organic, organometallic and inorganic substances included in the Official Pharmacopoeia: identification reactions and purity control.
V.Cavrini, V. Andrisano, Analisi farmaceutica, Società Editrice Esculapio • F.Savelli, O.Bruno, Analisi Chimico Farmaceutica, Edizioni Piccin • A. Carta, M.G. Mamolo, F. Novelli, S. Piras, Analisi Farmaceutica Qualitativa, EdiSES - Farmacopea Ufficiale della Repubblica Italiana, Ultima Edizione• Farmacopea Europea, Ultima Edizione
The course is divided into theoretical lectures and practical activities. During the theoretical lectures the general methods of identification of substances of pharmaceutical interest will be discussed, together with the specific assays on the various compounds considered and present in Pharmacopoeia. The course will be supported by laboratory exercises, with the aim to give to the students the opportunity to use the knowledge and understanding gained to apply in practice what they studied during the theoretical lectures and the individual study.
Assessment methods and criteria
The examination consists of a practical test and of a written test covering all the topics of the course. During the practical test students will recognize two substances included in the Official Pharmacopoeia, thus demonstrating their knowledge and understanding on the most useful analysis methods for separation, identification and purity control of the drugs. The assessment of the achievement of the objectives of the course also includes a written examination, whose purpose is to demonstrate a good applying knowledge, understanding and ability to solve problems relating to the identification of compounds of pharmaceutical interest.
To achieve the objectives of the course, students will attend laboratories equipped with the instrumentation useful for the separation and identification of compounds of pharmaceutical interest.