ANIMAL BIOLOGY - PLANT BIOLOGY
Learning outcomes of the course unit
Dublin descriptor 1: Knowledge and understanding
The Animal and Plant Biology course has been designed to provide students with the most up-to-date scientific information in the fields of evolutionary biology, molecular biology and cellular biology, as well as provide the biological foundation required to understand reproductive processes and embryogenesis in major animal and plant groups.
Dublin descriptor 2: Applying knowledge and understanding
The fundamental knowledge of Animal and Plant biology is applied to pharmaceutical sciences.
Dublin descriptor 3: Making judgements
Students must be able to manage a discussion about the organization and functioning of living systems at different levels: from molecules to cells and individuals.
Dublin descriptor 4: Communication skills
The student must acquire a technical language to present and discuss fundamental biological processes of living animals and plants.
Dublin descriptor 5: Learning skills
The student must be able to read and commentate a scientific text dealing with animal and plant biology topics.
To achieve these objectives the student will acquire the basic knowledge of biology, genetics, and embriology with particular reference to the structure, function, reproduction and evolution of the eukaryotic animal and plant cells.
Fundamentals in the field of general biology, zoology and botanics.
Course contents summary
LIVING SYSTEMS ORGANIZATION;
EVOLUTIONARY HISTORY OF BIODIVERSITY;
THE ANIMAL CELL;
DEVELOPMENT OF LIVING ORGANISMS AND PHOTOSYNTHETIC ORGANISMS. TYPES OF NUTRITION. PROKARYOTES, CYANOBACTERIA. ENDOSYMBIONITIC THEORY. TALLOPHYTES AND CORMOPHYTES. MAIN TYPES OF PLANTS. PLANT CELL. PLASTID, PHOTOSYNTHESIS. CELLULAR WALL. VACUOLE AND SECONDARY METABOLISM. ANATOMY OF THE PLANT. STEM, ROOT, LEAF, FLOWER. PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS.
LIVING SYSTEMS ORGANIZATION
Hierarchical organization. Molecules and their bonds. Macromolecules and their functions. Cellular theory of life.
EVOLUTIONARY HISTORY OF BIODIVERSITY
The origin of life. Biological and cultural evolution. Individual selection, sexual selection, kin selection, Group selection, cooperative altruism. Origin and evolution of vertebrates. Evolution of mankind.
THE ANIMAL CELL
Morpho-structural and functional differences between procaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
From molecular genetics to genomics.
Organs functioning in main vertebrate groups. Metabolic pathways.
Reproductive biology and embryology
Individuals autotrophic and heterotrophic.
taxonomy and nomenclature units. Systematics, taxonomy, identification.
Classifications: descriptive systems, morphological, phylogenetic.
Reproduction (asexual, sexual).
Mushrooms. Organization and main biological characteristics
The main divisions of the plant kingdom.
THE PLANT CELL
Chloroplast: ultrastructure. Photosynthesis.
The cell wall.
The middle lamella
The primary wall
Cellulose and hemicellulose
The secondary wall
Chemical modifications of the wall
Pharmaceutical importance Wall
the vacuole; vacuole functions
the vacuolar juice components
secondary metabolism production of active ingredients in medicinal plants.
ANATOMY OF THE PLANT
The different zones of the stem and root development
Anatomy of the stem
the primary structure zone
transition from the primary to the secondary structure
secondary structure zone
The omoxilo wood and eteroxilo
Anatomy of root
anatomical differences between root and stem
Flower anatomy and pollination
Anatomy of the main types of fruits
True fruits and false fruits
mineral elements and their function in the plant
Tropisms and circadian rhythms.
Solomon, Berg, Martin (2017) Biologia. VII Edizione. EdiSES, Napoli.
Raven P.H.et al. : BIOLOGIA DELLE PIANTE,sesta edizione. ZANICHELLI
Maugini E.et al : MANUALE DI BOTANICA FARMACEUTICA, settima edizione. PICCIN
Stern K.R. et al. : INTRODUZIONE ALLA BIOLOGIA VEGETALE
The course comprises 10 credits taught by means of oral lessons and specific seminars. Slides will be projected during classes to fully illustrate all the topics of contents.
In addition, supplementary lessons are provided for those students displaying previous lacking preparation.
Assessment methods and criteria
The evaluation of proper skills and knowledge on the different topics of the Animal Biology/Plant Biology class is based on both written and oral examination. The written test, which will last one hour, is based on 12 different questions, 4 of which are open questions while the remaining 8 are multiple choice quizzes (respectively, 6 questions on Animal Biology and 6 on Plant Biology). The final score is generated by 3 points for each correct open question and 1 point for each quiz. Admittance to the spoken examination is allowed with a minimun score of 8 over 10, both in Animal Biology and Plant Biology. A lower score in either one of the two subjects does not allow admittance to the spoken exam. The oral examination is intended to evaluate the student ability to manage a discussion on the Animal Biology and Plant Biology topics using an appropriate scientific and technical language. It is important to remind that the student online registration to the exam is mandatory.