Learning outcomes of the course unit
The course aims to enable the student to know and understand the macromolecules of biological interest. The student must understand and be able to describe:1) the structure of the molecules,2) how biological molecules interact and react,3) the functions performed by the molecules that make up the cell, seen as an elementary unit of living matter,3) fundamental aspects of cellular metabolism by locating the reactions’site within the cell.At the end of the course, the student have to demonstrate knowledge and understanding about the biological strategies and interdependence goals between the various phases of metabolism (anabolism, intermediate metabolism and catabolism). The student must acquire an overview of the cellular metabolic processes and their connection with energy consumption and production.The student must be able to apply the knowledge and comprehension skills acquired in carrying out its training activities.
Basic knowledge of Biology, General Chemistry and Organic Chemistry
Course contents summary
General biochemistry: The chemical and structural properties of the main macromolecules present in a cell.Metabolism: the main metabolic processes responsible for producing the energy necessary to keep the cell alive. Metabolic integration.
Functions of proteins: transporters, defense and muscular contraction
Enzymes - Structure and classification of enzymes. Coenzymes. Enzyme-substrate interactions. Enzymatic kinetics. Mechanisms of enzymatic regulation.Introduction to metabolism - Anabolism and catabolism.Glucose Metabolism - Aerobic and anaerobic glycolysis. Gluconeogenesis. Cori cycle. Glycogen syntesis and glycogenolysis. Hormonal regulation of glucose metabolism.Lipid metabolism - Plasmatic lipoproteins. Lipolysis and its hormonal regulation. Beta-oxidation of fatty acids. Ketogenesis. Biosynthesis of fatty acids, triglycerides, cholesterol. Statins. Synthesis of prostaglandins and leukotrienes.Aminoacid and protein metabolism - Intracellular protein degradation. Transamination and desamination. Transport of ammonia to the liver. Alanine cycle. Urea cycle. Glucogenic and ketogenic amino acids.Nucleotide metabolism - Degradation of purines and pyrimidines. Recovery route of nucleobases. Forms of hyperuricemia.Mitochondrial metabolism - Cyclic acid cycle. Complexes of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Mitchell's chemo-osmotic theory. Transport of reducing equivalents in the mitochondria. Respiratory control.Hormones - General mechanism of cellular action of hormones based on their structure. Structure, receptors and mechanism of action of insulin.Vitamins - Water-soluble and fat-soluble vitamins: structure, functions, mechanism of action and main deficiencies.Hemostasis biochemistry - Molecular mechanisms of platelet aggregation and blood coagulation.
Introduction to Biochemistry of Lehninger
David L. Nelson, Michael M. Cox
Biochimica Medica, strutturale, metabolica e funzionale Siliprandi e Tettamanti
During lectures (face-to-face / in streaming), teacher will illustrate and discuss the different topics of the program. Students' reception for clarifications and exercises only by appointment (face-to-face or using Teams).
Assessment methods and criteria
The assessment of the achievement of the objectives of the course consists of an oral examination on the whole program of the Biochemistry course.
In the case of coronavirus emergency, the exams will be performed with test online using Teams platforms.