# PRINCIPLES OF PHYSICS

## Learning outcomes of the course unit

At the end of the course the students should be able:

- to know the main laws and principles of classical physics and understand their physical sense and main applications.

Being able to use the proper specific language of physics and the related terminology.

- Be able to apply key concepts to specific cases and to understand their potential and their application limits. - Be able to expose concepts and results even to a general public and to know how to present

to an inexperienced audience the main aspects of the quantitative physical description of phenomena.

- To know how to evaluate the potentialities and limits of a quantitative physical description of phenomena.

- Be able to establish a link between different topics and show judgment autonomy and analytical skills in dealing with specific problems.

## Course contents summary

Mechanics: kinematics and dynamics of the point, work and mechanical energy, scattering, point systems, rigid bodies, angular momentum, conservation principles. Thermology and calorimetry. Perfect gas and principles of thermodynamics. Electrostatic Elements. Continuous current and electrical circuits. Stationary magnetic phenomena in vacuum. Electromagnetic waves.

## Course contents

Introduction: Physical quantities.

Units of measurement units.

Kinematics of material point : acceleration speed. Straight motion. mouvement evenly accelerated. mouvement in two and three dimensions. Dynamics of the material point and application of the laws of mechanics.

The concept of strength and first law of Newton, inertial mass, second law of Newton and law of action and reaction.

The gravitational force and the weight.

Friction forces, work and energy: Work of the forces. Kinetic energy. Conservative and non-conservative forces. Potential energy. Conservation of mechanical energy. Examples of conservative forces and potential energy associated with them.

Dynamics of the Systems: Multiple Particle Systems. center of mass. Quantities of motion and its conservation. Impulse and momentum. Scattering. Elastic and anelastic scattering.

Kinetic gas theory and thermodynamics: Macroscopic description of a perfect gas. Concept of temperature and the zero principle of thermodynamics. Status functions. Heat and internal energy. Specific heat. Thermodynamic transformations.

Energy conservation and first principle of thermodynamics. Entropy and the second principle of thermodynamics.

Electrostatic Elements: Electric charges and Coulomb law. The electric field. Gauss law and its applications. The electrical potential. Electrostatic potential energy. Current and DC circuits: current and current density. Electrical resistance and Ohm's law. Microscopic Resistance Interpretation: Charge Mobility. Conductors and insulators. Electromotive force. Joule's Law. Resistors in series and in parallel. RC Circuits.

Stationary magnetic phenomena in the vacuum: Lorentz force and magnetic field definition. Force exerted by a magnetic field on a conductor run by an electric current: Hall effect. Magnetic field generated by currents. The magnetic field of an infinite straight wire. The force between two parallel conductors run by currents.

Absence of isolated magnetic charges. Ampere Law and Circuit Theorem. The magnetic field of a solenoid. Variable electrical and magnetic fields over time: Magnetic induction. Faraday-Neuman Law. Electromagnetic waves.

## Recommended readings

Giancoli, FISICA Principi ed applicazioni, casa editrice Ambrosiana.

## Teaching methods

The course is organized in frontal lessons in which topics are discussed and concepts presented. Discussion and interaction with students and the ability to ask questions and ask for clarification is always prioritized and continuously and explicitly encouraged.

The course aims to describe, even quantitatively, a number of significant examples. For these purposes, each final lesson of a certain subject will be immediately followed by a series of exercises during which, always in an interactive way with the students, the applications of the concepts just presented will be discussed.

In addition, each lesson will be introduced by a brief summary of the concepts already discussed in the previous lesson, allowing the single student to have a quick connection with the already presented topics.

All the didactic material (introductory course material, figures, exercises, math support and trigonometry) is contained in the adopted text. The teacher will publish any additional material on the Elly site.

## Assessment methods and criteria

An active frequency and, as far as possible, continues is highly recommended and allows the student to participate in classroom work.

Assessment of learning is done through a written final exam and an oral exam.

The student must then, upon enrollment online, take an exam written as announced in the list of the official exam calendar of the Department SCVSA.

Each written exam of 2 hours will consist of 4 exercises (for each

score ranges from 0 to 5) and 10 questions closed (for each the score goes from 0 to 1).

The questions correspond to each part of the chapters chosen from those related to the lessons. The exercises will be similar to those developed during the course.

The student must demonstrate that he has understood, and is able to apply, the fundamental concepts of

every topic discussed.

Exam results are published on the Esse3 portal within one week of the examination date. The students

They can view the exam, after appointment with the teacher.