Learning outcomes of the course unit
the course aims to provide the fundamental concepts necessary to undertake the study of chemistry as a basic discipline. In particular, it will address the basic concepts of the discipline, such as: the structure of the matter, energy processes that govern it, interactions between molecules and reactivity of the molecules.
the acquisition of a language formally correct is pursued, the ability to express the content of the concepts in a clear and straightforward way is stimulated, connections between different parts of the course and how they contribute to the overall understanding of the food systemare highlighted .
Application of knowledge:
the course provides the tools to interpret in a rational way the molecular composition of foods and the role that the different components play. Stimulates the student's deep understanding of events, down to molecular level, that had previously been addressed only in a phenomenological way.
Basic math and physical knowledge are desired.
Course contents summary
Content: The module of General and Inorganic Chemistry is designed to provide the fundamental concepts necessary to undertake the study of chemistry as a basic discipline. During the course, aspects of the structure of chemical compounds and rationalization at kinetic and thermodynamic level of chemical processes are addressed. Particular attention is then given to the concepts of acidity and basicity also in relation to the periodic table. The module of Organic Chemistry, by exploiting the fundamental concepts provided in the first part of the course deals with the study of the reactivity of functional groups and polyfunctional molecules. In particular, it focuses on the compounds that are most important for the Agrifood sector: alcohols, ethers, amines, esters, amides, hemiacetals, acetals, sugars, amino acids, fatty acids, which are essential to the functionality of food. To better understand the fundamental concepts, practical examples, where these concepts are applied, are taken into account.
Part One (General and Inorganic Chemistry)
- The matter, atoms and molecules. Structure of atoms, protons, neutrons, electrons, atomic number, atomic weight. Atomic orbitals, electron distribution. Periodic properties: ionization energy, electron affinity, atomic radius. Ions.
- The chemical bond. Molecular orbital and valence bond theory. Hybrid orbitals. Lewis structures of neutral and ionic molecules, formal charges, resonance structures. Radicals. Properties of covalent bonds. Polarized covalent bonds and polarity. Ionic bonds.
- Chemical formulas and oxidation numbers. The most common inorganic compounds and their nomenclature: oxides, anhydrides, acids, bases, salts. The mole and its use in the calculations, density, percentage composition.
- Chemical reactions. Lavoisier's law, stoichiometric balance of the masses. Limiting reagent, introduction to the chemical equilibrium, yield of reaction. Reactions in aqueous solution, solvation, soluble and insoluble compounds. Reactions of double exchange, net ionic equations. Acids and bases according to Arrenhius and Brønsted, acid-base reactions, displacement reactions. Redox reactions and their balance.
- Thermodynamics. The forms of energy. First law of thermodynamics, enthalpy, heat of reaction. Entropy, second law of thermodynamics. Gibbs free energy
- Matter states. Gaseous state, Boyle's Law, Charles Law, state equation of ideal gases. Liquid state, intermolecular interactions, vapor pressure, boiling point, viscosity. Solid state, crystalline and amorphous solids. Phase changes and phase diagrams.
- Solutions. Dispersed phases: emulsions and suspensions, emulsifiers. Methods for measuring the concentration of the solutions: percent, molarity, molality. Solubility, temperature dependence. Multi-component mixtures and solutions: Raoult's law and Henry's law. Colligative properties: ebullioscopic raising and freezing lowering, osmosis.
- Chemical equilibrium. Equilibrium constants, equilibrium perturbation, Le Chatelier's law.
- Acid-base reactions. Definition of acidity and alkalinity according to Arrenhius and Brønsted-Lowry. Ionic product of water, pH. Strength of acids and bases, strong and weak acids and bases, Ka and Kb, pH of solutions of strong acids and bases. Estimation of pH of solutions of weak acids and bases. Basic and acid hydrolysis of salts, buffer solutions.
- Kinetics. Reaction rate, rate law. Effect of temperature, concentration, the collision theory. Arrenhius equation. Catalysts.
Part Two (Organic Chemistry)
- Organic compounds. Carbon hybridization, functional groups, common classes of organic molecules.
- Alkanes: structure, nomenclature, physical and chemical properties, conformations. Cycloalkanes. Reactivity of the CH bond: combustion, autooxidation, halogenation. Carbon radicals. Number of oxidation of organic compounds. Alogenoalkanes.
- Alkenes, structure, nomenclature and properties. Isomerism. Hydrogenation of the double bond. Mechanism of electrophilic addition to double bonds: addition of halogenhydric acid, water, halogens. Polymerization, synthetic and natural polymers. Dienes, the effects of conjugation. Alkynes.
- Chirality. Relative and absolute configuration. Diastereoisomers, enantiomers.
- Alcohols: structure, nomenclature, physical and chemical properties, reactivity. The concepts of nucleophile and electrophile. Nucleophilic substitution reactions, SN1 and SN2 mechanisms. Carbocations. Elimination reactions, E1 and E2 mechanisms. Ethers. Thiols. Sulphides.
- Aldehydes and Ketones, structure, nomenclature, general reactivity. Acetals, synthesis and reactivity. Imines and enamines.
- Carbohydrates, structure, nomenclature and chiroptical properties. Monosaccharides, disaccharides, glycosides.
- Carboxylic acids: structure, nomenclature, acid properties.
- Derivatives of carboxylic acids. Mechanism of nucleophilic acyl substitution. Acyl chlorides, esters and amides: structure, nomenclature, general reactivity.
- Amines: structure, nomenclature, acid-base properties.
- Aromatic compounds, aromaticity and Hückel rules. Heteroaromatic. Phenols and aromatic amines.
- Aminoacids: structure, nomenclature, acid-base properties; isoelectric point. Proteins.
Single Text valid for both the General Chemistry and Organic Chemistry parts:
McMurry, Ballantine, Hoeger, Peterson: FONDAMENTI DI CHIMICA GENERALE E ORGANICA. Ottava Edizione, Pearson Italia Editore, Milano-Torino
Alternatively for the part of General Chemistry only:
Tro, Nivaldo J. : INTRODUZIONE ALLA CHIMICA. Sesta Edizione, Pearson Italia Editore, Milano-Torino
Alternatively for the part of Organic Chemistry only:
Klein, D. FONDAMENTI DI CHIMICA ORGANICA. Pearson Italia Editore, Milano-Torino
Other Consultation Texts:
Masterton, Hurley: Chimica, Principi e reazioni. Editore Piccin Padova;
Brown, Poon: Introduzione alla Chimica Organica. Editore EDISES Napoli
The course consists of 56 hours of lectures and 15 hours of tutorials. During the hours of lectures, students are guided to the understanding of the basic concepts and applications of General and Organic Chemistry. After each set of arguments are scheduled classroom exercises with the aim of allowing the student to assess their level of understanding of the subject. For this purpose, the proposed problems are discussed in cooperation with the students.
Assessment methods and criteria
The final exam consists of a written test of General Chemistry, followed by a written test of Organic Chemistry, containing problems that are proposed to the solution of the students. Both tests must be passed with a mark equal or higher than 18/30.The final mark will be the average between the two tests.
The teaching material is provided to students at the beginning of the course.
Teachers will be available to students for clarification and discussion at the end of the lesson and to provide further explanations, by appointment.