GENERAL AND INORGANIC CHEMISTRY
Learning outcomes of the course unit
Knowledge and understanding: Aim of the course is to give the fundamental knowledge in order to understand and apply the concepts of general and inorganic chemistry, with particular regard to the study of matter in its different aggregation states and to the study of chemical transformations (chemical reactions). The knowledge acquired by the student will be used in the subsequent courses containing chemical-physic concepts. Applying knowledge and understanding: the instruments necessary to understand the structure and reactivity of matter, both at macro and micro level, will be furnished. Particular importance will be given to structure-reactivity. property correlations, investigating thermodynamic and kinetic aspects of transformations. Exercises will cover several chapters of the program (taking advantage from "progetto IDEA"), aimed at training the student with quantitative aspects of chemistry. Making judgment: the student will be trained at using all the information received to understand, and then describing, the properties of matter and its behaviour, taking into account also thermodynamic and kinetic data. The exercises will help the student to self-assessment his/her preparation, also with the contribution o discussions on selected topics. Communication skills: the student will be asked to use a correct scientific language, both in oral and written form, as well as the ability to represent graphically the descriptive models of matter (from the electronic model of atom to structural molecular formulae). Learning ability: the student will be able to understand, and in some cases to predict, the outcome of inorganic reactions. He/She will be able to correlate the structure of simple inorganic compounds with its properties/reactivity, the same for simple hydrocarbons. Finally, the student will be able to interpret the thermodynamic parameters of a given process.
Prerequsites are not needed since the course starts introducing the basic concepts of General Chemistry
Course contents summary
Atomic theory basis. Chemical bond, from atoms to molecules. Thermodynamic and equilibrium. States of matter (gaseous, liquid and solid). Phase transitions and phase equilibrium. Solution properties. Behaviour of acids, bases and salts in acqueous solutions. pH of acqueous solutions. Electrochemistry. Kinetic. Brief outlines of organic chemistry.
What is chemistry - Matter - Particle nature of matter - States of aggregation of matter - State passages - Elements and compounds - Homogeneous and heterogeneous mixtures or mixtures - Introduction to the atom (mass number and atomic number) - Isotopes - Chemical elements : periodic table; elementary or combined elements; molecular elements; allotropic forms - Compounds: ionic and molecular compounds (covalent); ion formulas; ion combination; molecular compound formulas - Mole: molar mass and formula weight - percentage composition of compounds: determination of the minimum formula (brute) - hydrated salts
Electronic structure of the atom
Electromagnetic radiation - Electromagnetic spectrum - Planck equation - Light matter interaction: incandescence; photoelectric effect - Energy absorption and emission: spectral lines; Rydberg equation - Bohr atomic model - Wave-particle dualism: De Broglie equation - Schroedinger equation - Atomic orbital and quantum numbers - Types of atomic orbitals (s, p, d, f) - Energy scale for atomic orbitals - Electronic configuration of the elements (Aufbau): Pauli exclusion principle and Hund's rule - Reconstruction of the Periodic Table - Periodic properties of the elements: atomic radius; ionization energy; electronic affinity; ion beam; electronegativity.
Ionic bond: cations and anions; Coulomb's law; factors that influence the attractive force (ionic radius, charge); formulas of ionic compounds - Covalent bond: homopolar and heteropolar; Lewis formulas; rule of the octet and exceptions; resonance hybrids; chemical radicals; VSEPR theory; polarity of the covalent bond; polarity of molecules; properties of the covalent bond (order, length, energy); VB theory; hybridization (methane, ammonia, water, boron trifluoride, ethylene, acetylene, benzene); MO theory (hydrogen molecule, fluorine molecule, oxygen molecule); delocalization of molecular orbitals; metal bond
Outline of Organic Chemistry - Hydrocarbons
Saturated hydrocarbons: linear alkanes; branched alkanes (isomerism); cyclic alkanes (cycloalkanes); Lewis formulas and structural formulas; nomenclature - unsaturated hydrocarbons: alkenes; alkyne; aromatic compounds - Sources of hydrocarbons - Combustion
Oxidation number - Construction of chemical formulas using the oxidation number - Classes of common compounds: metal oxides, non-metal oxides, hydroxides, oxygenated acids, hydracids, Salts
Thermodynamics (part I) and thermochemistry
System and environment - First law of thermodynamics (energy conservation) - Heat, work and internal energy - Enthalpy - Exothermic and endothermic processes - Standard training enthalpy - Standard reaction enthalpy - Hess's law (outline)
Boyle's law - Charles's law - Gay-Lussac's law - Avogadro's law - Perfect gases (ideals) - Partial pressures - Molecular kinetic theory - Diffusion and effusion - Real gases
Intermolecular forces and liquid state
Intermolecular forces: ion / dipole interaction; dipole / dipole interaction; induced dipole / dipole interaction; induced dipole / induced dipole interaction; hydrogen bond (liquid and solid water) - liquid state: cohesive forces; evaporation (dynamic equilibrium); vapor pressure; boiling; supercritical fluid; surface tension, capillarity
Crystalline and amorphous solids - Crystal lattice (elementary cell, reference to Miller indices, crystalline habitus) - Symmetry operations: rotation axis; symmetry plane; inversion center; roto-inversion axis - Crystallographic systems and Bravais lattices (outline) - Polymorphism (packaging) - Ionic solid - Covalent solid - Molecular solid
Balance between the phases - Diagram of state of water and carbon dioxide
Dissolution processes: solubility laws (solvent and solute polarity); dissociation and solvation; miscibility; exo or endothermic dissolutions; solubility of gases in liquids (Henry's Law) - Concentration of solutions: percentage by weight; w
1) C.KOTZ, P.TREICHEL, J.TOWNSEND: "Chimica", EdiSES; 2) R.H.PETRUCCI, W.S.HARWOOD: "Chimica generale",Piccin; 3)P.ATKINS, L.JONES: "Principi di chimica",Zanichelli
Class lectures, class practices (stoichiometry) and, when possible, laboratory practices. The stoichiometry practices will be devoted to chemical reactions, concentration of solutions, pH of acqueous solutions. The laboratory practices will be carried out individually with the aim of evidencing some phenomenon described during the frontal lessons.
Assessment methods and criteria
The student should be able to explain the concepts acquired during the course by using an appropriate language and by connecting the different chapters of the program properly. The examination will be constituted by a written test (questions dealing with the fundamental aspects of the program and some stoichiometry exercises). Usually the written exam is composed by an exercise based on nomenclature (whose passing is mandatory to be admitted to the oral exam), by a second exercise about reactions and by other four exercises/questions covering different aspects of the program. During the written exam the use of a calculator will be admitted. A Periodic Table of the Elements will be furnished together with the text of the exam. The student will be admitted to the oral examination only after having passed the written examination. The result of the written exam will be communicated through the dedicated web platform, at least two days before the scheduled oral exam. The final grade is on a scale of 30, based on the average of the written and oral exams.