# PHYSICAL METHODS

## Learning outcomes of the course unit

The course aims at providing a basic understanding of physical processes and laws underlying the properties of matter. Laboratory experiments aim at providing some practical applications of the conceptual instruments highlighted in the class activity.

The course aims at providing a basic understanding of physical processes and laws underlying the properties of matter. Laboratory experiments aim at providing some practical applications of the conceptual instruments highlighted in the class activity.

## Prerequisites

Basic knowledge (high school level) of algebra, trigonometry and differential calculus

Basic knowledge (high school level) of algebra, trigonometry and differential calculus

## Course contents summary

The course aims at providing:

the knowledge and understanding of the main principles of classical physics with focus on mechanics, thermodynamics, electricity and magnetism together with skills in solving simple problems

the methodologies needed to obtain quantitative data from simple experiments and to treat them using error theory.

The course aims at providing:

the knowledge and understanding of the main principles of classical physics with focus on mechanics, thermodynamics, electricity and magnetism together with skills in solving simple problems

the methodologies needed to obtain quantitative data from simple experiments and to treat them using error theory.

## Course contents

Class Lectures

Physical quantities, units, dimensions & Errors. Vector calculus: sum and difference of vectors, scalar product, vector .product,

Motion in one, two and three dimensions, Newton’s laws of motion, Friction, Circular motion.

Work, Energy & Power, Momentum, Collisions, Gravitation.

Simple Harmonic motion, Wave motion and Sound waves, Fluid mechanics.

Calorimetry, Heat Transfer, Kinetic theory of gases, Thermodynamics.

Electric Force, Field and Potential, Capacitors, Electric Current, Electric Circuits.

Magnetic Force and Field, Electromagnetic Induction, Alternating Currents.

Reflection at Plane and Spherical Surfaces, Refraction at Plane and Spherical Surfaces, Optical Instruments, Defects of Vision, Wave Nature of Light: diffraction and interference.

Laboratory practice

Introduction to error theory, error distribution: standard deviation & normal distribution, error propagation, linear regression & non-linear approximations, Chi-squared test.

Use of "Origin" software for data analysis.

ESPERIMENTS.

Mechanics: simple pendulum.

Thermodynamics: measure of the Joule equivalent.

Electromagnetism: Ohm’s law, RC circuit.

Class Lectures

Physical quantities, units, dimensions & Errors. Vector calculus: sum and difference of vectors, scalar product, vector .product,

Motion in one, two and three dimensions, Newton’s laws of motion, Friction, Circular motion.

Work, Energy & Power, Momentum, Collisions, Gravitation.

Simple Harmonic motion, Wave motion and Sound waves, Fluid mechanics.

Calorimetry, Heat Transfer, Kinetic theory of gases, Thermodynamics.

Electric Force, Field and Potential, Capacitors, Electric Current, Electric Circuits.

Magnetic Force and Field, Electromagnetic Induction, Alternating Currents.

Reflection at Plane and Spherical Surfaces, Refraction at Plane and Spherical Surfaces, Optical Instruments, Defects of Vision, Wave Nature of Light: diffraction and interference.

Laboratory practice

Introduction to error theory, error distribution: standard deviation & normal distribution, error propagation, linear regression & non-linear approximations, Chi-squared test.

Use of "Origin" software for data analysis.

ESPERIMENTS.

Mechanics: simple pendulum.

Thermodynamics: measure of the Joule equivalent.

Electromagnetism: Ohm’s law, RC circuit.

## Recommended readings

Mechanics, thermodynamics, electricity and magnetism:

R. A. Serway, J. W. Jewett Jr. - Principi di Fisica – EdiSES

J.R. Gordon, R.V. McGrew, R. A. Serway, W. Jewett Jr. - Esercizi di Fisica Guida ragionata alla soluzione - EdiSES

Alternatively:

J.S. Walker - Fondamenti di Fisica – Pearson Italia.

D.C. Giancoli - Fisica. Principi e applicazioni – CEA

P.R. Kesten, D.L. Tauck - Fondamenti di Fisica - Zanichelli

Error theory and data treatment procedures:

J.R. Taylor - Introduzione all'analisi degli errori - Zanichelli

Mechanics, thermodynamics, electricity and magnetism:

R. A. Serway, J. W. Jewett Jr. - Principi di Fisica – EdiSES

J.R. Gordon, R.V. McGrew, R. A. Serway, W. Jewett Jr. - Esercizi di Fisica Guida ragionata alla soluzione - EdiSES

Alternatively:

J.S. Walker - Fondamenti di Fisica – Pearson Italia.

D.C. Giancoli - Fisica. Principi e applicazioni – CEA

P.R. Kesten, D.L. Tauck - Fondamenti di Fisica - Zanichelli

Error theory and data treatment procedures:

J.R. Taylor - Introduzione all'analisi degli errori - Zanichelli

## Teaching methods

Class lectures

Class exercises coordinated by an instructor, if possible, also laboratory activity carried out in small groups (three-five students)

Class lectures

Class exercises coordinated by an instructor, if possible, also laboratory activity carried out in small groups (three-five students)

## Assessment methods and criteria

The exam is divided into:- An evaluation of the laboratory activity (weight 20%). These evaluations are communicated to the students, at the end of the course, through electronic platform.- A written test (normally, weight 80%, but weight 50% if the student is admitted and decides to take an oral interview).The written test includes: a part of very simple multiple choice exercises, designed to verify the knowledge of the basic concepts; a part of relatively more complex exercises, designed to verify the ability to use and process these basic concepts; a part of general questions that allow the student to present a course topic in complete freedom. The written vote results from an average weighed on the three types of questions.- Only in the case of evaluation equal to or greater than 24/30, the student may choose to take an additional oral examination. In this case, the overall vote will be given to 20% by the laboratory evaluation, 50% from the evaluation of the written exam, 30% from the evaluation of the oral exam.During the tests students can only use a calculator, not connected to the Internet.

The results of the tests will be announced on electronic platform.Each written test has value only for the appeal of which it is a part. It is not possible to take the written test and the oral interview in two different appeals.The oral interview is aimed at quantitatively assessing the knowledge of the main topics of mechanics, thermodynamics, electromagnetism and optics presented during the course and the ability to use them in practical contexts sufficiently simple.Students enrolled in the first year can take part in three partial tests during the course (topics: Mechanics, Thermodynamics, Electromagnetism). An overall average score of not less than 18/30 (with at most one insufficient grade but not less than 15/30) replaces the final written exam.Online registration is always required through the electronic platform.

The evaluation procedure takes place as follows:

- Evaluation of the laboratory activity, if it was offered (20% )

- Written test (20% or 40% if Laboratory activity was not offered)

- Oral examination (60%).

The written test requires the capability of solving simple exercises in mechanics, thermodynamics and electromagnetism.

For admission to the oral examination a minimum grade 15/30 is required in the written test. The written test must be passed in the same round of the oral examination.

The oral exam aims at evaluating in a quantitative way the knowledge of the main items that make up the syllabus: mechanics, thermodynamics, electromagnetism, elements of modern physics.

First year students can take part to three written tests during the course. If their average grade is "sufficient" (with not more that one single insufficient grade), they are exempted from the written exam. Students can benefit from this exemption only once either in the summer session (June-July) or in the fall session (september-october).

The oral exam is compulsory for all the students.

## Other informations

Minimal contents needed to pass the exam.

- Newton’s laws and of conservation laws (momentum and energy) and capability of applying them in solving simple dynamical problems;

- Knowledge of zero principle , first and second principle of thermodynamics as well as of main state functions (internal energy, enthalpy and entropy) and capability of applying them in solving simple problems of equilibrium thermodynamics.

- Knowledge of Maxwell equations, of Ohm and Kirkhoff laws and capability of applying them in solving simple problems of electromagnetism.

Minimal contents needed to pass the exam.

- Newton’s laws and of conservation laws (momentum and energy) and capability of applying them in solving simple dynamical problems;

- Knowledge of zero principle , first and second principle of thermodynamics as well as of main state functions (internal energy, enthalpy and entropy) and capability of applying them in solving simple problems of equilibrium thermodynamics.

- Knowledge of Maxwell equations, of Ohm and Kirkhoff laws and capability of applying them in solving simple problems of electromagnetism.