BIOCHEMISTRY OF PHYSICAL EXERCISE
Learning outcomes of the course unit
Know, understand and gain skills on integrated concepts of energy metabolism and the molecular basis of biochemical adaptation mechanisms to exercise.
Course contents summary
Basic principles of metabolic adaptation to physical exercise of different intensity and duration. Metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins in exercise of different types. Concepts of nutrition, integration and supplementation in the diet of athletes.
Biochemistry of tissues and organs: liver, heart, adipose tissue, blood cells (erythrocytes), nerve tissue, muscle tissue. Integration of metabolism at rest, fasting or stress.
The Skeletal Muscle: Types and characteristics of myofibrillar proteins. The sarcomere and its organization. Mechanism of muscle contraction. Energy balance of muscle contraction. Properties and metabolism of the various types of muscle fibers.
Energy muscle. Energy substrates present in the muscle fibers. Muscle energy systems: immediate, anaerobic, aerobic. Use of the different energy systems according to the type of exercise performed. Lactate production. Lactate threshold. Training influence on the lactate threshold. Lactate transport, lactate shuttle. Cori cycle. VO2 max. Oxygen debt, oxygen deficit and EPOC.
Carbohydrate metabolism during exercise.
Lipid metabolism during exercise.
Amino acid metabolism during exercise.
The influence of pH and phosphate ions in muscle fatigue, adjusting the buffer capacity and its dependence from training
Integration and supplementation. The metabolism of supplements in exercise and sport performance. Functional classification of supplements.
Creatine, carnosine, carnitine,
glutamine, branch chain aminoacid, proteins, carbohydrates, antioxidants.
"Biochemistry of exercise and Training" Ron Maughan, Michael Gleeson and Paul L. Greenhaff. Oxford University Press, Oxford
"Metabolic Regulation" A human Perspective. Keith N Frayn.terza edizione. Wiley-Blacwell, Oxford
"I principi di Biochimica di Lehninger". Nelson DL, Cox MM. Zanichelli, Bologna.
"Biochimica Medica, un approccio clinico". Lieberman, Marks. Casa Editrice Ambrosiana, Milano.
Lectures. During lessons will be discussed general issues related to metabolic adaptation to physical exercise.
Assessment methods and criteria
Oral examination. Open-ended questions designed to assess the knowledge and skills of the student on the principles of metabolic adaptation to exercise.