PHYSIOLOGY ( ATT)
Learning outcomes of the course unit
At the end of the course the student has the knowledge and capacity of understanding the mechanisms underlying the cellular homeostasis e the electrical properties of membranes, the mechanisms underlying the activity of the muscle tissue, the endocrine mechanisms underlying the regulation of visceral and reproductive functions, the principles of nutrition physiology and the neural mechanisms underlying sensory, motor and higher-order functions.
The student will be able to describe these phenomena and to use afterwards this information for the physiopathological interpretation of signs and symptoms.
Course contents summary
This frequency-only first course of Physiology focuses on arguments of general physiology, muscle physiology, neurophysiology,physiology of the endocrine system and nutrition, and on cardiovascular physiology
GENERAL PHYSIOLOHY (Giuseppe Luppino)
Cell membrane. Mechanisms of passive permeability. Selective permeability. Simple diffusion. Facilitated diffusion. Active transport. Osmosis. Filtration.
Electrical properties of the biological membranes. Electrochemical gradient. Nerst equation. Properties of cell channels. Action potential. Properties and mechanisms of gating of cell channels. Voltage-gated channels. Slow potential. Propagation of the slow potentials and of the action potentials.
MUSCULAR PHYSIOLOGY NEUROPHYSIOLOGY (Giuseppe Luppino)
Basic Physiology of the Nervous System. Functional properties of nerve fibers. Basic anatomy and functional properties of skeletal and smooth muscles. Synaptic transmission. Neurotransmitters. Membrane receptors. Reflexes. Flexion and stretch reflexes. Muscle spindles.
THERMOREGULATION (Roberto Tirindelli)
Homoeothermic and poikilothermic animals. Laws of the thermodynamics. Heat distribution in the body. Body temperature detection. Physical mechanisms of heat exchange. Physiological mechanisms of heat conservation, heat dispersion, thermogenesis, and their hormonal control. Perspiratio insensibilis, sweating and evaporation. Heat balance. Adapting mechanism to hot and cold temperatures. Fever and heat shock.
Central thermoregulatory centers.
METABOLISM (Roberto Tirindelli)
The energy balance. Units of measure of the energy metabolism. Thermodynamic considerations.
Direct and indirect calorimetry. Caloric equivalent for oxygen. Basal and total metabolic rate. Caloric consumption from protein metabolism. Caloric values of food substances. The isodynamic Law of food substances. Thermogenic actions of food substances. Hormonal control of metabolism. Fasting.
EXERCISE PHYSIOLOGY (Roberto Tirindelli)
Ergometry. Oxygen consumption during exercise. Respiratory quotient.
Metabolic costs during physical activity. Concept of mechanical and chemical efficiency. Energy costs and efficiency during different physical activities. Internal and external work. Analysis of the aerobic and anaerobic muscular power. Modifications of the physiological parameters during the exercise: neuro-hormonal responses. Metabolic pathways during the physical exercise. The lactate during the anaerobic exercise. The oxygen debt (Excess post-exercise oxygen consumption, EPOC).Effect of training on physical activities.
PHISIOLOGY OF NUTRITION AND GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT (Stefano Rozzi)
Food intake: consequences of overfeeding and deficiency of food intake. Neural and hormonal control mechanisms of GI functions. Motility of GI: chewing, swallowing, gastric and intestinal motility, defecation. Secretions of GI: saliva, gastric secretion, intestinal secretion, pancreatic secretion and biliary secretion. Digestion, absorption and transport of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and vitamins.
CARDIOVASCULAR APPARATUS. (Stefano Rozzi)
Physical principles of hemodynamics. Physical properties of blood. Myocardial properties: rhythm, conduction, excitability, contraction. Heart electrophysiology. Ionic theories of resting and action potentials. Electrocardiogram. Heart mechanics and the cardiac cycle. Cardiac output. Intrinsic and extrinsic regulation of heart activity. The vascular system. Passive mechanical properties. Vascular smooth muscles. Nervous and endocrine regulation of blood vessels. Blood pressure; systolic, diastolic, mean and pulsatory. Measuring blood pressure. Venous pressure and blood circulation. Arterial and venous pulse. Coronary circulation and heart metabolism. Local circulation: muscle, skin, kidney, splanchnic. Brain circulation: chemical, metabolic and nervous regulation.
FISIOLOGIA MEDICA a cura di Fiorenzo Conti, Ed. Edi-Ermes
BASI FISIOLOGICHE DELLA PRATICA MEDICA di West, Ed. Piccin
Oral lessons with Powerpoint presentation
Assessment methods and criteria
The content of this frequency-only course course will be object of the final exam planned at the end of the second course of physiology (III year).