BIOCHEMISTRY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY
Learning outcomes of the course unit
To understand, to acquire skills and to be able to communicate relevant concepts concerning:
structure and functions of the main bio-molecules (proteins, nucleic acids, enzymes and co-enzymes);
the mechanisms of metabolic energy production, energetic and structural homeostasis of living cells, the molecular mechanisms of genetic information,
Before taking the exam of "Biochimica e Biologia Molecolare" students have to pass:
1) Chimica e propedeutica Biochimica
2) Istologia ed embriologia
Course contents summary
The course introduce relevant information and knowledge on the main molecules constituting living organisms. The course is organized in 3 modules:
Biochemistry A: Proteins: structure and functions. Myoglobin, hemoglobin and oxygen transport. Enzymes and enzyme kinetics. Cofactors and coenzymes used in metabolic reactions. Bioenergetics and biological oxidation. ATP, structure and functions. Reducing power, oxidative phosphorylation, the role of oxygen metabolism.
Biochemistry C: Structure functions and mechanism of action of vitamins. Biochemical mechanisms of blood coagulation. Biochemical mechanisms of calcium homeostasis.
MOLECULAR BIOLOGY: The course provides basic knowledge on the molecular aspects of the transmission of genetic information. The course initially introduces the basics of the concept of inheritance, and then introduces nucleic acids as molecules able to ensure the transmission of the genetic information through DNA replication, RNA transcription and proteins translation. Then will be introduced the concepts of DNA damage/mutation and the impact of DNA mutation on human health. Finally the course will provide the basis for the knowledge of the main techniques used for DNA/RNA manipulation, and their application in various fields of research, diagnosis, forensic medicine and treatment of human diseases.
Folding and protein stability, structural motifs and protein classifications. Protein-ligand interaction, protein folding diseases. Myoglobin, hemoglobin and oxygen transport. Enzymes and enzyme kinetics. Cofactors and coenzymes used in metabolic reactions. Bioenergetics and biological oxidation. ATP, structure and functions. Reducing power, oxidative phosphorylation, the role of oxygen in metabolism.
BIOCHEMISTRY C: Structure functions and mechanism of action of liposoluble vitamins. Biochemical mechanisms of : light perception, blood coagulation, calcium homeostasis.
MOLECULAR BIOLOGY: Molecular basis of genetic information. Composition and structure of nucleic acids. Chromatine, chromosomes and genes. DNA replication, DNA recombination, DNA damage and mutation, DNA repair. Cell aging and cancer. Types of RNA: structure and functions. Mechanisms and regulation of transcription. Genetic code and its properties. Protein synthesis and its regulation. Regulation of gene expression. Molecular biology techniques: DNA sequencing and cloning, restriction enzymes and restriction maps, transgenes and transgenic organisms. Recombinant DNA technology in forensic medicine.
Nelson DL, Cox MM: I principi di Biochimica di Lehninger, Zanichelli, Bologna.
JD Watson et al.: Biologia Molecolare del gene. Zanichelli, Bologna.
Lieberman, Marks: Biochimica Medica, un approccio clinico. Casa Editrice Ambrosiana, Milano.
Baynes JW, Dominiczak MH: Biochimica per le discipline biomediche, Elsevier Mosby, Philadelphia.
Caldarera CM: Biochimica Sistematica Umana, CLUEB, Bologna.
Devlin TM: Biochimica con aspetti clinici. Wiley-Liss, New York.
Garrett RH, Grisham CM: Biochimica. Piccin, Padova.
Mathews CK, van Holde KE, Ahern KG: Biochimica, Casa Editrice Ambrosiana, Milano.
Murray RK, Granner DK, Mayes PA, Rodwell VW; Harper Biochimica, McGraw-Hill Libri Italia srl, Milano.
Siliprandi, Tettamanti: Biochimica Medica, Piccin. Padova.
Voet D, Voet JG: Biochimica John Wiley & Sons, USA.
The course will be held with oral lectures and seminars to deep single issues, and will make use of multimedia systems. During the lessons, students will have the opportunity to discuss the key aspects of the course. Teachers will be available throughout the duration of the course to answer questions and support students during their training with individual meetings by appointment.
Assessment methods and criteria
Multiple choice test. If the test is successful, the student can ask to proceed with the grade recording or to take an integrative oral examination. In the event that the student's preference falls on the second option, the final grade will be the average of the results reported in the two tests.