COMPLEMENTS OF CHEMISTRY
Learning outcomes of the course unit
To provide the basics of organic chemistry to understand the behavior and reactivity of substances in the risk assessment process.
Course contents summary
Aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons
Alkanes, Alkenes and Alkines: nomenclature.
Radical replacement exercise on alkanes to obtain alkyl halides: from ethane to chloroethane.
Homolytic and heterolytic breakdown of the chemical bond: radicals, carbocations and carboanions.
Alkyl halides. Nomenclature of alkyl halides. Aliphatic nucleophilic substitution.
Alcohols' and phenols' acidity. Nomenclature of alcohols.
Carbonyl derivatives: aldehydes and ketones. Nomenclature of aldehydes and ketones. Nucleophilic addition. Sugars such as polyhydroxyaldehydes and polyhydroxyketones.
Carboxylic acids and derivatives: esters, acyl halides, amides, anhydrides. Nomenclature of carboxylic acids and esters. Acyl nucleophilic substitution. carboxylic acids' acidity.
Amines: nomenclature and preparation.
Aromatic compounds: Benzene and its derivatives. Aromatic electrophilic substitution
Reactivity of organic compounds.
Basic and nucleophilic concept, concept of acid and electrophile.
Acidity scale of organic compounds. Oxidation scale of organic compounds: assignment of oxidation numbers in organic compounds.
Lipids, fats and triglycerides. Preparation of a triglyceride. Soaps. The saponification reaction.
Amino acids; formula of amino acids in aqueous solution. The peptide bond and proteins.
Chemical bases of the toxicity / hazard of the main inorganic and organic substances.
Lectures with exercises.
Assessment methods and criteria