Learning outcomes of the course unit
After the course students should be able:
- to read a basic biomedical scientific article, undertsnding its structure;
- to manage a simple database, particularly in the field of occupational and environmental medicine;
- to do simple tests of inferential and descriptive statistics by using freeware software;
to assess the error in the physical direct and indirect measures .
Knowledge of basic mathematics, basic knowledge of English.
Course contents summary
Definition of statistics. The types of biostatistical studies. Descriptive statistics: qualitative and quantitative variables. Measures of central tendency, dispersion, symmetry for quantitative variables. Arithmetic mean, median, mode. The normal and non-normal distribution. Skewness and Kurtosis. Kolmogorov-Smirnov’s e Shapiro-Wilk’s tests. Elements about binomial and Poisson distributions.
Parametric and Non-Parametric Inferential statistics. The sampling theory and central limit theorem. Hypothesis test on a mean. Constraints and
degrees of freedom. T-Student distribution. Repeated and independent measures t-student test. Non-parametric test. The rank. Mann-Whitney’s
and Wilkoxon’s tests. The frequency for categorical/qualitative variables. The sampling of categorical variables. 2*2 contingency tables. Chi-square test for independent data. Screening test.
Difference between correlation and regression. Simple linear regression.
Correlation coefficient R. Pearson’s and Speraman’s tests. Theory of errors in the physical measurements, error propagation.
As reported in Contents.
Classroom slides (uploaded on Elly after 2/3 of the course) are the reference point for the exam.
Some further reference books:
SA Glantz - Statistica per discipline biomediche - McGraw-Hill.
JR Taylor - Introduzione all'analisi degli errori - Zanichelli
During the classroom lectures the topics of the module program will be illustrated and commented. Each theory argument with mathematical formulae will be explained with the use of simple and practice examples, so that the student can focus his/her attention on basic concepts more than the formulae themselves. Furthermore, the use of the software OPENSTAT will permit to the student to repeat the statistical tests treated
during classes for a better comprehension of their use and meaning. Several technical terms will be used both in Italian and in English, so that the student can read on his own the international scientific literature, particularly in the field of occupational and environmental medicine.
Assessment methods and criteria
The verification of the achievement of module objectives is a written test, mainly consisting of open questions about the arguments treated during the lessons. In this way, it is possible to assess the student’s knowledge and understanding of both theory and practice principles and their application in medical and biological field through the use of current examples.
The grade, expressed as 30/30, will be used as 1/3 in the weighted mean with physics (2/3).