BASICS OF PREVENTION
Learning outcomes of the course unit
The course aims to provide students with the basic knowledge to understand the many factors that may interact with individual health; particularly for infectious and contagious diseases, students should acquire the ability to evaluate the conditions and situations associated to the risk of their spread. Students will acquire the ability to identify, as regards different transmission modes of infections and specifically for each pathology treated, "critical points" of spread, any categories of persons most exposed in relation to their working activity, the implications associated with the propagation of infectious pathogens and types of intervention to be applied preventively.
Besides the application form about occupational health, aims to educate students with the main effects induced by the interaction between the environment and health of exposed.
Course contents summary
A module of the course is addressed to the knowledge of the basic concepts of epidemiology and general prevention of infectious diseases and chronic degenerative diseases with special reference to current issues of public health and the study of the relationship between public health and environment considered in its main arrays.
A second module is dedicated to a detailed study of the most important infectious diseases associated with occupational activities, highlighting the fundamental epidemiological aspects and prevention strategies to control their spread. Finally the third form is aimed to study the fundamentals of health and safety in the workplace.
Epidemiology and general prevention: concept of health and determinants; epidemiology, data, descriptive and frequency measures (rates, incidence and prevalence), epidemiological studies, association measures. Prevention definition and intervention levels.
General epidemiology of infectious diseases: host-parasite relationships, sources and reservoirs of infection, transmission modalities, modes of occurrence of infections in the population. General prophylaxis: types and levels of preventive intervention; diagnosis, notification, isolation, sterilization, disinfection, disinfestation.
Active immunoprophylaxis, types of vaccines, vaccination strategies and schedules, passive immunoprofilaxis and chemoprophylaxis.
Epidemiology and prevention of non-infectious diseases of social importance.
Environmental hygiene: physical, chemical and biological contaminants and their toxicological aspects.
Water hygiene: physical, chemical and microbiological criteria, potabilization treatments.
Wastewater: biological treatment systems.
Air pollution: the main pollutants and their effect on human health.
Pathologies with oro-fecal transmission: HAV infections.
Parenteral transmission disorders: HBV, HCV, HIV infections.
Airborne diseases: influenza, TB.
Pathologies transmitted in association with trauma: tetanus
Active and passive immunoprophylaxis: types of vaccines and sera, vaccination strategies, vaccine prophylaxis for children, adulthood (in relation to professional exposures) and the elderly.
Biological risk: general concepts and its management.
Health-care related infections.
C. Signorelli – Igiene Epidemiologia Sanità Pubblica secrets Società Editrice Universo
Barbuti -Fara –Giammanco- Carducci- Coniglio - AAVV IGIENE Ed.Monduzzi
Assessment methods and criteria
The student must demonstrate that he has acquired and understood the contents of the course and that he is able to apply prevention actions in relation to the diseases treated. With regard to the minimum requirements for passing the exam, the student must demonstrate personal skills and competences in evaluation of general preventive actions to be taken in the workplace and environment according to different methods and levels of exposure to risks.