BIOLOGICAL PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY
Learning outcomes of the course unit
The aim of the course is to provide the students, by means of models peculiar of physical chemistry, with the thermodynamic concepts for knowledge and understanding of the energy interconversion in biological systems, the interaction of ligands with biological macromolecules and biological transport phenomena. Colloid chemistry, foundation of health products will be presented. The chemical-physical bases and methodologies for studying, designing and developing non-viral vectors will be presented., with particular emphasis on new cationic surfactants as possible mediators for gene delivery.
At the end of the course the student will have assimilated the main themes of Biologica Physical Chemistry demonstrating knowledge and understanding of the chemical-physical methods for the study of biological systems. The student will be able to identify and apply the appropriate model to each system and to calculate the thermodynamic parameters of the phenomenon observed.
At the end of the course, the student will have to demonstrate that he has assimilated the following topics:
- Principles of thermodynamics
- Relationships between thermodynamic quantities
- Chemical physical methods appropriate for the study of biopolymers
- Solution equilibria
- Membrane processes.
- Transport phenomena
- Colloidal systems
- non-viral vectors
Course contents summary
-Thermodynamics and Biochemistry.
- Changes of state: physical transformations of pure substances.
- Macromolecules in solution.
- Chemical equilibria involving macromolecules.
-Bioenergetics. - Intermolecular forces.
- Colloid Chemistry. - Non-viral vectors for gene therapy.
-Thermodynamics and Biochemistry: heat, work and energy. First law of thermodynamics. Molecular interpretation of thermodynamic quantities. Entropy, free energy and equilibrium. Second law of thermodynamics. Experimental Thermochemistry. Calorimetry. An outline of Statistical Thermodynamics.
- Changes of state: physical transformations of pure substances. Phase diagrams. Gibbs phase rule.
- Macromolecules in solution: thermodynamics and equilibria. Partial molar quantities, the chemical potential, ideal and non-ideal solutions. Application of the chemical potential to membrane equilibria: membrane equilibria, dialysis equilibrium, osmotic pressure, membrane potential.
- Chemical equilibria involving macromolecules: chemical equilibrium, thermodynamics of chemical reactions in solution. Interaction between macromolecules, binding equilibria, binding curves, cooperativity.
- Bioenergetics: molecules through membranes: transport modes, endoergonic and exoergonic reaction, coupled reactions.
- Intermolecular forces: van der Waals forces, hydrogen bond, hydrophobic interactions.
- Colloid Chemistry: definition and classification, surface tension, DLVO theory, structure and classification of surfactants, micelle and liposome.
- Non-viral vectors for gene therapy: non-viral methods for gene transfection. New non-viral vectors for gene therapy: cationic surfactants
- K.E. Van Holde, W. C. Johnson, P.S. Ho Principles of Physical Biochemistry, Pearson Prentice Hall
- P. Atkins, J. De Paula, Chimica Fisica Biologica 1, Zanichelli, Bologna
- P. Atkins, J. De Paula, Elememti di Chimica Fisica, Zanichelli, Bologna
- P. Atkins, J. De Paula, Chimica Fisica, Zanichelli, Bologna.
- David G. Nicholls Bioenergetics Academic press, inc.
- Scientific reviews on specific topics
During the oral lesson will present the basic concepts of physical chemistry with particular emphasis on biological applications is also planned a visit to the laboratories of Physical Chemistry of the Department of Pharmacy in order to show students the techniques that have been discussed.
Assessment methods and criteria
During the course, two written in itinere tests will be proposed. The mark of the module will be the mean of the two tests.
Alternatively, an oral examination will have to be passed, during normal examination sessions of module of pharmaceutical biochemistry.
In every case, written and oral open questions will have the purpose of establishing the level of knowledge and understanding of the course content, in relation to the educational goals.
If the results of the test will be positive (18/30), the final mark of drug-biomolecules interaction examination will be the mean of the mark of the two modules.