PATHOPHYSIOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY
Learning outcomes of the course unit
The objectives of course are to enable the acquisition of knowledge and understanding the mechanism of proliferation and cell death, the mechanism of response to injury (inflammation, hemostasis, tissue repair), the pathogenesis of some human genetic diseases, the biological characteristics of the tumors, as well as the essential mechanisms of the immune response and its alterations, with particular reference to applications in transfusional medicine and to the aspects of interest in nursing; to enable the acquisition of basic knowledge of bacteria, fungi, parasites and viruses of medical interest and to understand their interactions with the host and their pathogen role. The course allows the student to apply the knowledge and understanding gained in the professional future.
Sufficient knowledge of biology, anatomy, biochemistry and physiology are needed to address the topics of the course.
Course contents summary
General alteration of growth and death, cellular and molecular oncology, genetic and metabolic diseases and general physiopathology. Blood and hematopoiesis and components of innate and acquired immune system. General features of acute and chronic inflammation and immunopathology. Immunoemathology and transfusional medicine.
General characteristics of prokaryotic cell. Diagnosis of bacterial infection diseases. Main bacteria responsible for infectious diseases in humans. General and special Virology. General characteristics of fungi. The main human fungal infections.
Cellular Pathology: Cellular alterations of growth and differentiation. Hyperplasia, hypertrophy, atrophy, metaplasia, dysplasia. Necrosis and apoptosis.
Oncology: classification and nomenclature; Benignant and malignant tumors; Tumor aetiology; Fundamentals in molecular oncology; invasivity and metastasis; pathogenesis of neoplastic diseases. Grading and staging.
The blood: composition, cells, general pathophysiology. Anemia and Thalassemia syndromes. Leukemia and lymphoma. Phases and event of the haemostatic response. Hemorrhagic disorders; thrombosis and embolism; infarction.
Inflammation: events of acute inflammation; the exudate; types of exudate; phagocytosis; chronic inflammation and granulomas; abscesses and ulcers; chemical mediators of inflammation; systemic effects of inflammation and fever; tissue repair.
Genetic disorders: mutations; monogenic diseases: examples of autosomic dominant, autosomic recessive and X-linked disorders; cytogenetic disorders.
Multifactorial disorders: atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus.
Innate and adaptive immunity: distinction and cooperation. Antigens and Antibodies. Ag-Ab interaction. Lymphocyte receptors. The Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC). Functional anatomy of the immune response. Lymphocyte activation and effector functions. Primary and secondary reaction. Principles of vaccination. Immune response to infections. Hypersensitivity. Primary and secondary immunodeficencies. HIV infection.
Blood groups. AB0 system. Rh system. Other blood groups. Hemolytic disease of the newborn. Fundamentals of transfusional practice. Transfusional complications.
- Structure of the bacterial cell (wall, outer membrane, plasma membrane, nucleus, DNA and plasmid, flagella, pili or fimbriae, capsule and spore);
- Metabolism of the bacterial cell;
- Notes on reproduction and bacterial genetics.
- Infection and disease;
- Pathogenicity and virulence of bacteria (adhesins, exo-enzymes, exo- and endotoxins)
- Mechanisms of bacterial resistance to antibiotics and clinical implications
- The care-associated infections.
MICROBIOLOGICAL DIAGNOSIS OF infective diseases
- Direct methods (ie. Microscopic, culture, antigen detection, use of genetic probes);
- Indirect methods (agglutination techniques, immunofluorescence, immunoenzymatic, W.blot).
- Sampling (problems related to the collection, storage and transportation of biological materials).
- Susceptibility: Implementing Rules and clinical utility.
- Virus hepatotropic
- Hynfluenzae Virus
MYCOLOGY And Parasitology
- Candida albicans
- Toxoplasma gondii
- Plasmodium malarial
Modulo di Patologia Generale
- J. Maier “Patologia Generale e Fisiopatologia per le professioni sanitarie” II ed. McGraw-Hill
- V. Del Gobbo "Immunologia per le lauree sanitarie" IV ed., Piccin
- G.M. Pontieri “Elementi di Patologia Generale per i Corsi di Laurea in Professioni Sanitarie” III ed., Piccin
- G.M. Pontieri “Elementi di Fisiopatologia Generale per i Corsi di Laurea in Professioni Sanitarie” III ed., Piccin
Modulo di Microbiologia
- M. La Placa - Principi di microbiologia clinica, XIII edizione – Ed. Esculapio
- Marchiaro,Goglio, Grigis – Microbiologia clinica – III ed. - Ed. Sorbona
The topics in the program will be presented and discussed through lectures trying to involve the student so that it can be an active part of the lesson.
Assessment methods and criteria
Learning outcomes will be verified through an oral examination. Questions on the topics relating to the course will be used to test knowledge and understanding of the student in the scientific discipline, and her/his ability to apply such knowledge and understanding in occupational contexts.