ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
Learning outcomes of the course unit
The course aims to illustrate to students the basics of morphological and physiological functioning of the apparatus of the physiological and social life in
Allow the student to know and understand, at a basic level, the mechanisms underlying the functioning of the body’s organs of vegetative life like the heart,
lungs, kidneys, digestive system and temperature control, as well as those of social life such as the nervous and muscular systems. The course aims to enable the student to apply the knowledge and understanding in the future professional activity.
Course contents summary
Introduction anatomy, section planes.
Musculoskeletal system: Skull bones (parietal, frontal, temporal, occipital, maxillary, mandibular, nasal bones, sphenoid, ethmoid); axial skeleton (rib cage, spine, and the structure of the vertebrae, shoulder blades, collarbones, pelvic bones); appendicular skeleton (humerus, radius, ulna, bones of the hand and wrist, femur, tibia, fibula, foot bones) joints: classification (sinartrosi, anfiartrosi, diartrosi with related examples).
temporomandibular joint, shoulder joint, hip joint. muscles of the pharynx, larynx, external and internal intercostal, diaphragm, abdominal muscles.
Cardiovascular system: heart (rooms, valves, pericardium); microscopic structure of arteries, veins and capillaries; major vessels of the arterial circulation of the chest, abdomen, upper and lower limb; main vessels of the venous thoracic, abdominal, upper limb and lower; pulmonary circulation; portal circulation; blood (composition, blood group and Rh factor).
Lymphatic system: primary organs (spleen and thymus), secondary (lymph nodes: structure and main localizations)
Digestive System: oral cavity and the major salivary glands, esophagus, stomach (location and microscopic structure), small intestine (duodenum, jejunum and ileum; localization, microscopic structure and function), large intestine (cecum, colon, sigmoid and rectum; localization, microscopic structure , and function). Liver (location, structure and function of the liver lobule). Pancreas (localization, microscopic structure and function). Parietal and visceral peritoneum, large and small omentum, months (transverse mesocolon, sigmoid).
Respiratory system: upper airways (nasal cavity and was, choanae, pharynx, larynx, trachea). Bronchi and lungs (macro- and microscopic structure). Pleura.
Urinary system: kidneys (localization, nephron and its function, goblets minor, major, pelvis), ureters, bladder, urethra.
Genital apparatus: gonads and endocrine function, reproductive tract, accessory glands.
Central and peripheral nervous system: the brain (overview of the location and functions of the telencephalon, diencephalon, midbrain, hindbrain, bridge, myelencephalon and cerebellum) spinal cord reflex arc
Autonomic nervous system: notes on the function and structure of ganglia dell'orto and parasympathetic. Cranial nerves (list). Functions of the vagus nerve and the trigeminal.
Endocrine System: Localization and functions of the hypothalamus, pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, thymus, adrenals.
The integrated course aims to illustrate to students the normal functioning of the human body and its organs and the main mechanisms underlying the maintenance of physiological conditions.
Cell excitability: physiology of the neuron; physiology of synapses;
neurotransmitters and neuromodulators; the neuromuscular junction; muscle
contraction. Basic principles on the autonomic nervous system function.
Cardiovascular physiology: heart excitability; electromechanical coupling; basic of
EKG; blood pressure; capillary pressure and peripheral exchange mechanisms;
nervous regulation of heart rhythm.
Respiratory system physiology: breathing; the mechanical ventilation and the
physical principles involved (elasticity and pressure gradients); pneumothorax; gas
exchange in the lung and peripheral tissues; the transport of gas (hemoglobin);
spirometry and respiratory volumes; nervous and chemical control of the breath;
signs of obstructive respiratory disease.
Renal Physiology: structure of kidney and nephron; physiology of the nephron;
processes of homeostasis, filtration, re-absorption, secretion and excretion; passive
and active transport mechanisms; re-absorption of sodium and glucose; basic
knowledge on the renin-angiotensin system.
Somatosensory system: principles of physiology of the sense organs; physiology of
mechanoreceptors; organization of the somatosensory system; the dorsal and
anterolateral ascending systems; hemisection of the spinal cord; somatotopic
organization and sensory homunculus; epicritic sensibility; plasticity of the
Pain, nociception, placebo effect and empathy: classification of pain and its
characteristics; nociceptors; nociceptive pathways (protopathic sensibility);
nociception vs. pain and emotional component; phantom pain; placebo effect;
concept of empathy.
Physiology of the digestive system: the structure of the digestive system, chewing,
bolus formation and swallowing; digestion in the stomach; digestion and absorption
in the small intestine; peristalsis; the liver and bile; pancreas and pancreatic juice;
the large intestine and the formation of feces.
The endocrine system.
Physiology of reproduction and gestation.
Anatomia dell'Uomo 2° ed. (Ambrosi et al.) Ed. Edi-Ermes; Anatomia Umana
(Martini, Timmons, Tallitsch) Ed. EdiSES
Physiology for Nursing Practice, SM Hinchliff, SE Montague, R Watson;
Vander Physiology, EP Widmaier, H Raff, KT Strang
The course will be based on lectures during which students will also have the ability
to view the anatomical structures on special anatomical models plastic
During the lectures will be presented and discussed the topics listed in the program
seeking to involve the student so that it can be an active part of the lesson.
Assessment methods and criteria
Written and oral assessment