IDROLOGY AND PROTECTION OF AQUIFERS
Learning outcomes of the course unit
1°- Knowledge and understanding
At the end of the lesson the student will know the components of the main hydraulic infrastructure: aqueducts and sewage systems. He will know also the theory of the appropriate design methods. He will have acquired the knowledge of the current regulations about aqueducts and sewers. He will understand the technical terminology in the field.
2°- Applying knowledge and understanding
Ability to design and verify aqueducts and sewers within the Italian regulatory framework.
3°- Making judgments
The student will acquire the ability to outline the real problem to find the technically sound and cost-effective design solutions.
4°- Communication skills
On passing the exam, the student should have acquired sufficient correct use of the language with regard to the topic specific terminology.
5°- Learning skills
The student should have acquired the basic knowledge of the discipline that will allow him to learn independently the future developments of the discipline.
The course covers the basics of Hydraulics and Hydrology that the student should have acquired in the bachelor's degree.
It is useful a basic knowledge of Geotechnics.
Course contents summary
The course will transmit to the students the theoretical and technical tools useful for the comprehension of the hydrological processes concerning aquifers, for a rational use of the groundwater and for a water quality protection.
Mathematical models of groundwater. Recalls and supplements of hydraulics of porous media: porosity, conductivity of saturated porous media, Darcy law, characteristic curve for unsaturated media, conductivity of unsaturated porous media, continuity equation, specific storativity, Laplace equation and its solutions.
2D confined and unconfined aquifers, storativity, confined and unconfined wells, pumping tests and their interpretation.
Water balance in the aquifer: analysis of sources, withdrawal and output, internal storage.
Numerical methods for the solution of the equations: finite differences and finite elements methods. Selection of space and time scales and boundary conditions. Interactions between surface network and groundwater.
Treatment of the natural heterogeneity of aquifers. Recalls and supplements of theory of stochastical processes. Random variables, covariance function, variogram. Kreaging process for the estimate of regional variables.
Pollutant transport. Pollutant fluxes by: advection, diffusion, dispersion. Chemical-physical-biological reactions in groundwater. Continuity equations in water and soil. Formal mathematical model of transport: coupled and uncoupled problems. Analytical solution in simple conditions. Numerical solution of the transport equations. Characterization of
polluted sites. Inverse problems in pollution transport.
Stochastic theory of pollutant transport in heterogeneous aquifers. Main results for uniform (in the average) flow and flow with recharge. Aquifer Restoration. Pollutant containment techniques: physical barrier, hydraulic barrier. In situ treatment: pump and treat, vapour extraction, soil venting, capture of NAPLs, reactive barriers. Natural attenuation.
Butera I. e Tanda M. G.: Dispense del Corso di Idrologia Sotterranea per gli allievi di Ingegneria per l’Ambiente ed il Territorio, Dipartimento di Ingegneria e Architettura dell’Università di Parma, available on the University web learning site “Web LEArning in Ateneo” http://elly.dia.unipr.it/2018/
De Marsily G. : Quantitative Hydrogeology – Groundwater Hydrology for Engineers, Academic Press, Inc., 1986.
Custodio E. e M.R. Llamas: Idrologia Sotterranea, Dario Flaccovio Editore, Palermo 2005.
Bear J. e A. Verruijt: Modeling Groundwater Flow and Pollution, D. Reidel Pub. Company, 1998.
Domenico P.A. e F. W. Schwartz: Physical and Chemical Hydrogeology, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1998.
Canter L. W., Knox R.C., Rasmussen, Spizzichino, Ground Water Pollution Control, Lewis Pub., 1985.
Detay M.: Water wells, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1997.
Additional educational material available on the University web learning
site “Web LEArning in Ateneo” https://elly.dia.unipr.it/2018 :
Lecture slides. Exercitation slides.
The course consists of a series of lectures and numerical exercises. The lessons will be carried out using Power Point presentations copy of which is provided in advance. The exercitations are presented in the computer lab, carried out numerically using the software Excel and other specialized software.
Assessment methods and criteria
The exam consists of an oral exam divided in two parts that will focus, respectively, on the topics discussed in the lectures and in the numerical exercitations.
In the evaluation of the interview the different learning components will be weighted as: 50% application of the theory to a real case (Applying knowledge), 25% identification of the best solution procedure (Making judgments), 25% correct use of the technical Language (Communication skills).
Lecture and practice attendance is highly recomended.