Learning outcomes of the course unit
Upon completion of the course, the student should have gained insight into the fate of nutrients in the body and about the main biochemical markers used in clinical biochemistry.
Biochemistry (2nd year)
Course contents summary
The course is divided into two parts: the first is focused on nutritional biochemistry; The second is focused on the biochemical analysis of markers of clinical interest
FIRST PART: NUTRITIONAL BIOCHEMISTRY
• Nutritional Biochemistry: introduction and general aspects.
• The physiology of the gastrointestinal tract, a biochemical overview.
• Calories, Energy Balance, Calorie Requirements, RDA
• Transmembrane transport, general aspects; Transporters, channels, pumps. Biochemical bases of endocytosis; clatrine.
• Enzymes involved in digestion: general aspects. Catalytic mechanisms of hydrolysis.
• Digestion and absorption of carbohydrates: aspects of carbohydrate structure, digestion, absorption, metabolic fate; Hormone regulation of blood glucose, diabetes, biochemical markers of diabetes.
• Digestion and lipid absorption: the structure of food lipids; digestion, absorption and metabolic fate; Essential fatty acids; hyperlipidemia
• Digestion and protein absorption: protein structure, essential amino acids; digestion; pathologies associated with the malabsorption of amino acids.
• Absorption of ethanol.
• Minerals: Absorption, transport and biochemical role of calcium, iron, copper, sodium, potassium, chlorides, iodides.
• Vitamins: classification and general aspects. Vitamin B6, Vitamin B12, Vitamin B3, Vitamin C, Vitamin A: Transport, Distribution, Biochemical Role, Deficiencies.
SECOND PART: CLINICAL BIOCHEMISTRY
Clinical biochemistry: definition
Analysis of biological samples
• The biological samples
• Measuring units
• Reference values
Clinical biochemistry in the main metabolic dysfunctions:
• Glucose metabolism
• Lipid metabolism
Clinical biochemistry in the major organ dysfunctions:
• kidney dysfunctions and diseases
• heart dysfunctions and diseases
• liver dysfunctions and diseases
• blood dysfunctions and diseases
• Tumor markers
• Inflammation markers
The main techniques used in the detection of biochemical analytes will be briefly discussed
The teaching material will be made available on a weekly basis and loaded on the Elly platform. The teaching material includes all the slides.
“Biochimica degli Alimenti e della Nutrizione”- Ivo Cozzani, Enrico Dainese
“Biochimica della Nutrizione” - Ugo Leuzzi, Ersilia Bellocco, Davide Barreca
“Medicina di laboratorio” – G. Federici; Edizione McGraw- Hill
The teaching activities will be carried out as frontal lessons, with short classroom exercises to enhance student self-assessment.
Assessment methods and criteria
The achievement of the objectives will be assessed in an oral examination divided into two parts. The exam will take place on the official exam dates, upon online registration.
The evaluation on a scale of 0 to 30 will take into account the level of study, the ability to apply critically the acquired knowledge, the appropriateness of scientific language and the autonomy in the discussion.