INFECTIOUS DISEASES, HYGIENE AND LIVESTOCK BREEDING PREVENTION MEASURES
Learning outcomes of the course unit
a. Knowledge and understanding: the course aims to provide students with basic knowledge on the interpretation models to assess, with reference to the different animal species, the major infectious diseases, especially those with zoonotic impact. Students are presented also the rationale behind the determination processes and communication of results in a system involving the following figures: breeder, veterinary AUSL, IZS operators.
b. Applying Knowledge and understanding: the student will be able to manage the process necessary to frame a microorganism taxonomically (both clinical origin as well as from food substrate); and then proceed to identify the necessary strategies in the therapeutic field but especially for prevention and control.
c. Making judgments: students can deal profitably logical interpretation of the dynamics that rule the etiology of different pathogens (bacterial, viral or mycetic), including through the acquisition of an interpretative model suitable to interface with the different entities involved in health care system.
d. Communication skills: at the end of the course students will have acquired the capacity for problem analysis (problem solving skills), interpersonal skills and ability to express in writing and orally in an effective and appropriate language to different stakeholders (owners of animals, breeders, veterinary AUSL, responsible IZS units). The student will be able to express their conclusions on studies and analysis of health issues analyzed, explaining in
clearly their reasoning and their own lines of action (therapy, vaccination plans, preventive measures).
e. Learning skills: the course aims to enhance learning of student using a correct approach to individual study and development of guided exercises in class (during which the student has to make operational decisions and results) management.
Course contents summary
The course is divided into four parts that provide, in time sequence, the following macro issues:
1 ) Bacteriology (bacterial structure, mycetic, genetics, physiology/biochemistry of prokaryotic cell );
2 ) Immunology (basic concepts , cellular elements involved; serological tests , vaccination )m and viral world;
3 ) Epidemiology;
4 ) Hygiene of farms, control of infectious diseases in livestock; sustainability of farms (environmental issues and biodiversity)
The first lesson will go to focus on general principles of bacteriology such as: cell wall, cytoplasmic membrane, capsule, bacterial spore, toxic factors, fungi, bacterial genetics, techniques, and requirements for growing different bacterial species, growth curve, hints about viruses.
General principles of immmunologia: innate and acquired immunity, the concept of antigen, serological reactions, hypersensitivity.
Antibiotics and disinfectants: mechanisms of action and utilization strategies.
General principles of epidemiology: transmission and maintenance of infections, diseases and cycle of a disease, latent infection and carrier state, horizontal transmission and vertical direct and indirect types of guest and routes of infection, spread of infection and host characteristics .
Requirements for feed hygiene.
Disinfection: strategies and guide lines.
Hygiene and safety of bovine milk on the farm: integrated diagnosis.
Biological decontamination of food by pathogenic bacteria.
Bio-acoustic evaluation of respiratory status as an indicator of health and well-being of the productions of bovine and swine.
Strategies for disease control in character respiratory pig farm and cattle. Characterization of gut microbiota and its reflexes on the immunological and sanitary status of animal population.
The issue of sustainability in the livestock sector will be framed. In fact, livestock farming has a significant impact on environmental balances, both locally and globally. This implies a direct impact on quality of air, climate and water quality, soil, biodiversity, landscape quality. We will analyze the already important impact that needs to be further amplified as a result of the growing worldwide demand for products of animal origin and of the ever-increasing trend towards industrialization and the intensification of livestock production.
Poli G., Dall’Ara P., Martino P.A. Microbiologia e immunologia veterinaria, Edra, 2017
Brock, Biologia dei microrganismi, Volume 1: Microbiologia generale, Pearson Education Italia, Milano, 2012.
Bottarelli E., Ostanello F., Epidemiologia. Teoria ed esempi di medicina veterinaria, Edagricole, Milano, 2011.
Montemurro N., Igiene zootecnica. Come favorire la salute e il benessere degli animali in allevamento, Edagricole, Milano, 2002.
Bottini D., La gestione sanitaria nell'allevamento della bovina da latte, Le Piont Veterinaire, Milano, 2009.
Zecconi A., Mastite Bovina Manuale pratico per un efficace controllo in stalla, Edizioni L’informatore Agrario, Verona, 2010.
The entire teaching activity involves the use of slide (made available to the student at the end of the course, on-line) in the educational front while the practical work will take place in the laboratory and in the course of business visits (assessment of the state of sanitation and collecting samples). This strategic line will enable students to acquire critical skills and intervention managerial and on health (on the basis of epidemiological data collected in the company and bacteriological data obtained from sampling collected by the student in field).
Assessment methods and criteria
During the course, students would have the opportunity to make a sort of auto-valuation. It will be performed in the classroom, with closed-loop, cryptographic responses delivered via computer tools (tablets or smartphones). A collective correction will take place in order to identify any critical nodes in the achievement of the learning objectives, in time to review their preparation before the summative evaluation (as indicated in date-exam programmed).
The student will be able to manage the process necessary to frame a microorganism after taxonomically isolated from samples made in companies with different sanitation problems, identifying treatment protocols and possible interventions vaccination and disinfection. The student will be evaluated through an oral exam that will be immediately insufficient if the student fails to submit or lack of knowledge of the basic concepts (elements of bacteriology and immunology).
After the first phase/step of the exam the student will be checked for logic and critical ability in dealing with a "simulation" of intervention in different types of livestock rearing with problems concerning health (infectious diseases).
In exceptional cases and, at the express request of the student, it will be assessed in writing.
With reference to students with specific learning disabilities (with reference to the Ministerial Decree of 12 July 2011), dispensary measures and compensatory instruments or oral tests will be applied, PCs equipped with spelling and speech synthesis. But above all they will be granted an extra time up to a maximum of 30% or a quantitative reduction will be expected. In any case, the evaluative logic followed in such circumstances will evaluate the contents rather than the form.