DOMESTIC ANIMALS ANATOMY, EMBRIOLOGY AND HISTOLOGY
Learning outcomes of the course unit
At the end of the training activity, the student should have acquired knowledge and skills related to cytology, histology, embryology, general anatomy and anatomy of animals of zootechnical interest that may be useful to the L38 graduate.
In particular, the student should be able to:
D1 - KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING;
a) know, interpret and understand the morpho-structural organization of animals of zootechnical interest, also in relation to the processes through which organisms are generated, grow, develop and organize themselves in tissues, organs, apparatus and systems
b) know the application of cytological / histological techniques for the study and recognition of morphostructural features of different types of animal cells and tissues.
D2 – APPLYIN KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING;
Know how to apply the acquired knowledge to connect the various topics discussed, to make comparisons, to carry out checks, to assist in the resolution of diagnostic problems and to deal with profitable studies of physiology, pathology, reproduction, biomechanics and animal welfare, conditions of breeding, as well as characteristics and quality of the animals according to their production.
D3 – MAKING JUDGEMENT;
a) describe and interpret autonomously the microscopic (cytological and histological) images and the morpho-structural characteristics of organs, apparatuses and systems of animal of zootechnical interest
b) Know how to independently diagnose tissue, organ, species and sex based on acquired knowledge
D4 – COMMUNICATION SKILLS;
a) Describe, orally, in a clear, exhaustive and synthetic way, using appropriate technical terminology, microscopic (cytological and histological) images, organs, apparatuses and systems.
b) know how to communicate with the professional figures that he/she will meet in the operating environment of his/her profession, using an appropriate language in relation to the context and the interlocutor
D5 – LEARNING SKILLS.
a) independently consult and comprehend scientific texts other than textbooks,
b) carry out a bibliographic research on specific topics related to the discipline,
c) Possess the mastery of the subject sufficiently wide to allow him/her to study and understand the related and characterizing subjects of the study course in SZTPA.
Specific knowledge provided by the entrance test or alternatively, recovery of educational debt in Biology
Course contents summary
The course includes different parts.
- The first part is dedicated to cytology, histology and embryology (CEI). Regarding cytology, the course recalls knowledge about the structure of the eukaryotic cell. Concerning embryology, it addresses topics ranging from gametogenesis to the formation of the three germ layers, moreover provides knowledge in relation to fetal membranes, placentation, fetal circulation and related changes at birth in farm animals. Concerning Histology, the course provides knowledge in relation to the morpho-structural and functional characteristics of Epithelial tissue, Connective tissue, Muscular tissue, Nervous tissue. Moreover it provides basic concepts on the development and the anatomy of the nervous system. The techniques and equipment necessary for the preparation and reading of histological specimens are also described.
- The second part of the course, dedicated to osteo-arthro-myology (OAM), gives basic concepts on anatomy and terminology to be used. Hence, the main parts of animal body are defined and knowledge about organogenesis and moprho-structural aspects (macro- and microscopic anatomy) of the locomotor apparatus is given.
The third part of the course provides knowledge on the anatomy (ANAT) of endocrine organs, digestive tract of monogastric and ruminants, the uro-genital male and female apparatus. Finally, this part provides general knowledge on the cardiovascular apparatus, respiratory apparatus, common integument, with particular attention to morphostructural aspects of the ungulates’ hoof and udder.
In addition to the lectures, educational practices activities of histology and microscopic and macroscopic anatomy will be provided
Morpho-structural aspects of eukaryotic cells
Processes of embryonic development of farm animals
- Gametogenesis - Early stages of embryonic development - Generalities on fetal membranes
morphology - structural and ultrastructural characteristics of animal tissues
- Epithelial tissues
• Glandular epithelia
• specialized epithelia
- Connective tissues
• Connective tissues proper and specialized connective tissues
- Muscle tissue
• Smooth muscle
• striated skeletal muscle tissue
• cardiac striated muscle
- Nervous tissue
General anatomical terminology and main parts of the body.
General organization of the organs
• Organogenesis and morpho-structural aspects of bone and contractile tissues
• Organogenesis and morpho-structural aspects of the alimentary canal and glands in monogastric and ruminant
• Organogenesis and morpho-structural aspects of nose, nasal cavities, paranasal sinuses, pharynx, larynx, trachea, lungs and pleura
• organogenesis and morpho-structural aspects of male and female uro-genital organs
• Kidneys and urinary tract
• gonads and genital tract
• Heart and blood circulatory system: morpho-structural aspects, fetal circulation and changes in the circulation after birth
• Lymph-vascular system
Nervous system: organogenesis and general organization of the nervous system
• Somatic Nervous System
• Autonomic Nervous System
Endocrine glands: organogenesis and morpho-structural aspects
Common Integument: general aspects
• morphological and structural aspects of udder and nails
Preparation and reading of histological samples
Observation, description and study of dry anatomical praparations and demountable models.
Study of the main apparatuses and organs through the use of an anatomical software
BORTOLAMI R., CALLEGARI E., CLAVENZANI P., BEGHELLI V., Anatomia e fisiologia degli animali domestici, Edagricole, Bologna
DYCE K.M., SACK W.O., WENSING C.J:G: Testodi Anatomia Veterinaria,
Delfino Editore Roma.
GETTY R., Anatomia degli animali domestici di Sisson e Grossman, Piccin, Padova
PELAGALLI G.V., BOTTE V., Anatomia veterinaria sistematica e
comparata, Vol. 1, 2, Edi Ermes, Milano
LIEBICH H.G. Istologia e anatomia microscopica dei mammiferi domestici
e degli uccelli. Testo-Atlante, Ed. Piccin, Padova
BANKS W.J., Istologia e Anatomia Microscopica Veterinaria, Ed. Piccin,
DELLMAN H.D., BROWN E.M., Istologia e Anatomia Microscopica
Veterinaria, Ed. Grasso, Bologna
JUNQUEIRA J.C., CARNEIRO J Compendio di Istologia, Ed. Piccin, Padova
BARBIERI M. , CARINCI P., Embriologia, terza edizione. Casa Editrice Ambrosiana, Milano
PELAGALLI V.G. , CASTALDO L., LUCINI C. , PATRUNO M. , SCOCCO P., Embriologia. Morfogenesi e Anomalie dello sviluppo. Ed. Idelson-Gnocchi, Napoli
NODEN DE LAHUNTA
Embriologia degli animali domestici - Sviluppo normale e malformazioni congenite. EDI-ERMES
In addition to the reference books and links listed above, the slides shown during the lectures are available to students on the ELLY platform, accessible through identification and password.
The didactic activity, corresponding to a total of 6 CFU pertaining to the course of Anatomy, Histology and Embryology of Domestic Animals, is divided into 35 hours of lectures plus 16 hours of teaching practice.
The lectures will include:
- topics of cytology, embryology, histology,
- general knowledge about anatomy, terminology to be used, definition of the main animal body parts, topics of anatomy of the locomotor system.
- the lectures will also provide knowledge regarding organogenesis and macro-and microscopic anatomy of endocrine organs, digestive tract of monogastric and ruminants, uro-genital male and female apparatus, cardiovascular apparatus, respiratory apparatus and common integument. During the lectures, besides slides, students will also have the opportunity to directly observe some anatomical specimens and some models. Students will also use an anatomical software to view virtual 3D images of the various apparatuses and systems (individually or in any combination) of the different species of animals. All organs can be seen from any angle and at different zoom levels.
The slides used to support the lessons will be uploaded to the Elly platform and periodically updated. To download the slides, you need to enroll in the online course.
Slides are considered "useful" didactic material but do not replace the texts. Non-attending students are invited to periodically check the available teaching material and directions provided by the teacher through the Elly platform.
Assessment methods and criteria
The assessment of the achievement of the objectives of the course consists of an oral examination in which the student must answer questions regarding the contents of the course. It will be verified if the student has achieved the goal of knowledge and understanding of the content and the ability to apply the acquired knowledge. The student at the end of the course, will have to prove the ability - to correlate morphology, structure and functions, at the subcellular, cellular, tissutal and anatomical level - to apply the knowledge to the recognition of the various tissues and organs, by the analysis of microscopic images, and by the observation of anatomical preparations or models; -to identify similarities and differences between the sexes and between species, both in terms of the main features of the organs and in terms of the dynamics of development; -to interpret the changes, after birth, of the fetal circulation and the dynamics of the formation of the fetal membranes and placentation in farm animals.
Votes shall be cast out of thirty and communicated immediately at the end of the test.
Optionally, only attending students may undergo partial tests, in oral form, useful to monitor the achievement of the training objectives and provide feedback to students on the correctness of their study path and learning. The partial exam dates will be communicated by the teacher during the lessons and will be scheduled at the end of the first, second and third part of the course. During the first partial exam, students will hold an oral interview on topics of cytology, histology and embryology (CEI). During the second partial test, the topics will cover "general anatomical terminology, body parts, osteology, arthrology and myology" (OAM). For each partial test (CEI, OAM) a vote, out of thirthy, will be given to the students, that will average with the vote they will receive facing the final part of the exam. This part (ANAT) can only be supported after the end of the course, and will cover the remaining topics of the program (organogenesis and anatomy of the digestive and uro-genital apparatuses, endocrine organs, common integument, cardio-circulatory system, respiratory apparatus) .
The votes of the partial trials will also be expressed out of thirthy.
Each part of the examination (CEI, OAM, ANAT) must be passed with a rating of at least 18, otherwise the student will have to repeat the question on the part where he did not get enough.
The final vote will be given by the average of the votes obtained in the three partial tests.
To the students with diagnosis of specific learning disability (DSA) certified under law n. 170/2010, proper specific support will be provided.