# PHYSICS 1

## Learning outcomes of the course unit

At the end of the course, the student is expected to be able to:

[Knowledge and understanding]

- know the fundamental laws of classical Mechanics of material point and of Thermodynamics, with particular focus on kinematics, Newton’s laws and conservation principles;

- know the main aspects of the dynamics of systems of material points and of rigid bodies, gravitation, oscillatory and wave phenomena and of the Theory of Special Relativity;

- explain the origin of the depicted phenomena on the basis of experimental findings and of mathematical methods, on the basis of the outlined physical models;

[Applying knowledge and understanding]

- assess similarities and differences between physical systems, methodologies to be applied, approximations and mathematical methods to be used;

- apply knowledge and understanding by demonstrating ability to solve exercises and problems of classical mechanics and thermodynamics;

[Learning skills]

- interpret and understand the content of basic texts on topics of classical mechanics and thermodynamics;

- utilize the methodological approach of the Newtonian formulation of Mechanics as a conceptual basis for the formalization of topics in Physics addressed in more advanced courses;

[Making judgments]

- recognize and draw connections not only between different parts of the course but also with the basic concepts acquired in other courses (for example maths and chemistry) for developing an ability for autonomous judgment based on an enlarged knowledge of the various aspects of the problem under consideration;

- evaluate critically the validity limits of the developed models;

[Ability to communicate]

- communicate the product of this study in a clear, synthetic and effective manner, using the correct jargon of Physics, in order to translate correctly even complex concepts in understandable language.

At the end of the course, the student is expected to be able to:

[Knowledge and understanding]

- know the fundamental laws of classical Mechanics, including systems dynamics, and of Thermodynamics, with particular focus on kinematics, Newton’s laws and conservation principles;

- know the main aspects of the dynamics of rigid bodies, gravitation, oscillatory and wave phenomena and of the Theory of Special Relativity;

- explain the origin of the depicted phenomena on the basis of experimental findings and of mathematical methods, on the basis of the outlined physical models;

[Applying knowledge and understanding]

- assess similarities and differences between physical systems, methodologies to be applied, approximations and mathematical methods to be used;

- apply knowledge and understanding by demonstrating ability to solve exercises and problems of classical mechanics and thermodynamics;

[Learning skills]

- interpret and understand the content of basic texts on topics of classical mechanics and thermodynamics;

- utilize the methodological approach of the Newtonian formulation of Mechanics as a conceptual basis for the formalization of topics in Physics addressed in more advanced courses;

[Making judgments]

- recognize and draw connections not only between different parts of the course but also with the basic concepts acquired in other courses (for example maths and chemistry) for developing an ability for autonomous judgment based on an enlarged knowledge of the various aspects of the problem under consideration;

- evaluate critically the validity limits of the developed models;

[Ability to communicate]

- communicate the product of this study in a clear, synthetic and effective manner, using the correct jargon of Physics, in order to translate correctly even complex concepts in understandable language.

## Prerequisites

• Working knowledge of high school level algebra and trigonometry;

• Working knowledge of differential and integral calculus;

• Principles of analytical geometry and of elementary vector analysis.

• Working knowledge of high school level algebra and trigonometry; • Working knowledge of differential and integral calculus • Principles of analytical geometry and of elementary vector analysis

## Course contents summary

Part I

1. Mechanics: introduction and vector calculus

2. Kinematics of material point: one-dimension

3. Kinematics of material point: two- and three-dimension

4. Dynamics of material point: force and Newton’s laws

5. Applications of Newton’s laws

6. Relative motion

7. Work and mechanical energy

Part II

8. Dynamics of the systems of material points I

9. Dynamics of the systems of material points II

10. Dynamics of the rigid body I

11. Dynamics of the rigid body II: statics and rolling motion

12. Dynamics of the rigid body III: angular momentum conservation

13. Energy conservation

14. Collisions

Part III

15. Gravitation: phenomenology and Newton’s law

16. Statics and dynamics of ideal fluids

17. Oscillatory phenomena

18. Wave phenomena

19. Thermology and ideal gases

20. Heat and first law of thermodynamics

21. Applications of the first law of thermodynamics

22. Second law of thermodynamics

23. Entropy

Part IV (only for students of the Degree in Physics)

24. Additions on the dynamics of the systems and of the rigid body

25. Additions on Gravitation

26. Essentials on the mechanical properties of solids and real fluids

27. Elastic waves

28. Additions on the properties of gases and thermodynamics

29. Essentials on the Special relativity theory: kinematics and dynamics

Part I

1. Mechanics: introduction and vector calculus

2. Kinematics of material point: one-dimension

3. Kinematics of material point: two- and three-dimension

4. Dynamics of material point: force and Newton’s laws

5. Applications of Newton’s laws

6. Relative motion

7. Work and mechanical energy

Part II

8. Dynamics of the systems of material points I

9. Dynamics of the systems of material points II

10. Dynamics of the rigid body I

11. Dynamics of the rigid body II: statics and rolling motion

12. Energy conservation

13. Collisions

Part III

14. Gravitation: phenomenology and Newton’s law

15. Statics and dynamics of ideal fluids

16. Oscillatory and wave phenomena

17. Thermology and ideal gases

18. Heat and first law of thermodynamics

19. Applications of the first law of thermodynamics

20. Second law of thermodynamics and entropy

Part IV (only for students of the Degree in Physics)

21. Additions on the dynamics of the systems

22. Additions on Gravitation

23. Essentials on the mechanical properties of solids and real fluids

24. Elastic waves

25. Additions on the properties of gases and thermodynamics

26. Special relativity theory: kinematics and dynamics

## Course contents

Part I [3 CFU]

1. Introduction and recalls of vector analysis

Classical Mechanics and Thermodynamics; Physics and measurements; physical quantities and units. Basic vector operations: general properties of vectors; unit vectors; vector components; dot product and cross product; rectangular coordinates in 2-D and 3-D; vector derivatives.

2. Kinematics of Material Point: one-dimension

Material Point scheme. Position, velocity, acceleration vectors: constant-velocity and constant-acceleration motion. Free body fall. Harmonic motion.

3. Kinematics of Material Point: two- and three-dimension

Cartesian and polar coordinates representation, intrinsic representation of trajectory, position, velocity and acceleration. Planar motions: projectile motion; circular motion; centripetal acceleration; angular Kinematics.

4. Dynamics of material point: Force and Newton’s laws

Interactions, the conception of force; Newton’s laws; inertial reference systems; mass and weight; linear momentum and its conservation, general form of the Newton’s 2nd law, impulse and impulse theorem, angular momentum and its conservation, theorem of angular momentum.

5. Applications of Newton’s laws

Contact forces: tension, normal force; forces of static and dynamic friction; elastic force and Hooke’s law. Dynamics of the uniform circular motion: centripetal force. Simple pendulum and conical pendulum.

6. Relative motion

Inertial frames of reference: Galilean relativity. Non-inertial frames of reference, fictitious forces. Rotating frames of reference: Coriolis’ force. The earth frame of reference. Roto-translational motion.

7. Work and mechanical Energy

Work of a constant and of a variable force; work-energy theorem for a particle. Power. Conservative and non-conservative forces; potential energy: elastic, gravitational; mechanical energy and its conservation in isolated conservative systems.

Part II [3 CFU]

8. Dynamics of the systems of material points I

System of material points, centre of mass and its motion; theorem of centre of mass motion; linear momentum and its conservation; centre of mass reference system.

9. Dynamics of the systems of material points II: angular momentum, work and energy

Angular momentum of a system of particles; theorem of angular momentum; angular momentum and frames of reference. Dynamics fundamental equations and Newton’s third law. Work and work-energy theorem. Koenig theorem for kinetic energy; kinetic energy and reference frames.

10. Dynamics of the rigid body I

Discrete and continuous system; rigid body scheme, density, centre of mass; translation, rotation and roto-translation: kinematics of rigid bodies; moment of inertia; Huygens-Steiner’s theorem; axial angular momentum, precession of angular momentum; law of motion for rigid rotation around a fixed axis.

11. Dynamics of the rigid body II: statics and rolling motion

System of parallel forces and centre of gravity. Static equilibrium of a rigid body. Rolling motion of rigid bodies. Work and kinetic energy in the rotational and roto-translational motions.

12. Dynamics of the rigid body III: angular momentum conservation

Components of the axial angular momentum, precession; rotational equilibrium. Angular momentum conservation. Koenig theorem for the angular momentum.

13. Energy conservation

Generalization of the principle of conservation of mechanical energy; work of external forces; internal energy for a system of particles; energy conservation for a system of particles; energy associated to the centre of mass.

14. Collisions

Definition of collision; impact forces; impulse and impulse theorem; conservation principles in collisions; one-dimensional elastic collisions; inelastic collisions; angular impulse, moment of body impulse; collisions between particles and rigid bodies.

Part III [3 CFU]

15. Gravitation: phenomenology and Newton’s law

Motion of planets and satellites: Kepler laws; Newton’s gravitation law; measurement of constant G; inertial and gravitational mass; gravi

[provisional version]

Part I [3 CFU]

1. Mechanics: introduction

Classical Mechanics and Thermodynamics; Physics and measurements; physical quantities and units. Basic vector operations: general properties of vectors; unit vectors; vector components; dot product and cross product; rectangular coordinates in 2-D and 3-D; vector derivatives.

2. Kinematics of Material Point: one-dimension

Material Point scheme. Position, velocity, acceleration vectors: constant-velocity and constant-acceleration motion. Free body fall. Harmonic motion.

3. Kinematics of Material Point: two- and three-dimension

Cartesian and polar coordinates representation, intrinsic representation of trajectory, position, velocity and acceleration. Planar motions: projectile motion; circular motion; centripetal acceleration; angular Kinematics.

4. Dynamics of material point: Force and Newton’s laws

Interactions, the conception of force; Newton’s laws; inertial reference systems; mass and weight; linear momentum and its conservation, general form of the Newton’s 2nd law, impulse and impulse theorem, angular momentum and its conservation, theorem of angular momentum.

5. Applications of Newton’s laws

Contact forces: tension, normal force; forces of static and dynamic friction; elastic force and Hooke’s law. Dynamics of the uniform circular motion: centripetal force. Simple pendulum and conical pendulum.

6. Relative motion

Inertial frames of reference: Galilean relativity. Non-inertial frames of reference, fictitious forces. Rotating frames of reference: Coriolis’ force. The earth frame of reference. Roto-translational motion.

7. Work and mechanical Energy

Work of a constant and of a variable force; work-energy theorem for a particle. Power. Conservative and non-conservative forces; potential energy: elastic, gravitational; mechanical energy and its conservation in isolated conservative systems.

Part II [3 CFU]

8. Dynamics of the systems of material points I

System of material points, centre of mass and its motion; theorem of centre of mass motion; linear momentum and its conservation; centre of mass reference system; work-energy theorem. Koenig theorem for kinetic energy; kinetic energy and reference frames.

9. Dynamics of the systems of material points II

Angular momentum of a system of particles; theorem of angular momentum; angular momentum and frames of reference; Koenig theorem for angular momentum. Angular momentum conservation. Dynamics fundamental equations and Newton’s third law.

10. Dynamics of the rigid body I

Discrete and continuous system; rigid body scheme, density, centre of mass; translation, rotation and roto-translation: kinematics of rigid bodies; moment of inertia; Huygens-Steiner’s theorem; axial angular momentum, precession of angular momentum; law of motion for rigid rotation around a fixed axis.

11. Dynamics of the rigid body II: statics and rolling motion

System of parallel forces and centre of gravity. Static equilibrium of a rigid body. Rolling motion of rigid bodies. Work and kinetic energy in the rotational and roto-translational motions.

12. Energy conservation

Generalization of the principle of conservation of mechanical energy; work of external forces; internal energy for a system of particles; energy conservation for a system of particles; energy associated to the centre of mass.

13. Collisions

Definition of collision; impact forces; impulse and impulse theorem; conservation principles in collisions; one-dimensional elastic collisions; inelastic collisions; angular impulse, moment of body impulse; collisions between particles and rigid bodies.

Part III [3 CFU]

14. Gravitation: phenomenology and Newton’s law

Motion of planets and satellites: Kepler laws; Newton’s gravitation law; measurement of constant G; inertial and gravitational mass; gravity near the Earth surface. Spherical distribution of mass (shells theorems). Gravitational potential energy, escape velocity: motion of artificial satellites. Central forces.

15. Statics a

## Recommended readings

Suggested textbooks

• Fisica Generale. Meccanica – Termodinamica

P. Zotto, S. Lo Russo, P. Sartori

I edizione

Edizioni La Dotta, Casalecchio di Reno (Bologna), 2016

ISBN 978-88-98648-37-5

• Fisica Generale: Meccanica e Termodinamica

S. Focardi, I. Massa, A. Uguzzoni e M. Villa

II edizione

Casa Editrice Ambrosiana (CEA), Milano, 2014

ISBN 978-8808-18215-9

• Elementi di Fisica – Meccanica - Termodinamica

P. Mazzoldi, M. Nigro e C. Voci

II edizione

Edizioni Scientifiche ed Universitarie (EdiSES), Napoli, 2008

ISBN: 9788879594189

• FISICA 1

Meccanica - Acustica - Termodinamica

R. Resnick, D. Halliday, K. S. Krane

V edizione

Casa Editrice Ambrosiana (CEA), Milano, 2003

ISBN 978-8808-08611-2

Note on textbook choice

The textbooks are obviously alternative, although in part complementary. The students must make the choice based on personal preferences and previous preparation. Resnick’s textbook is less formal and with a ”tutorial" style, with many exercises and examples; Focardi’s and Zotto’s textbooks are most formally accurate, with some examples and a few or nothing exercises; Mazzoldi’s textbook, while presenting examples and exercises, is rather synthetic though preserving a formal exactness.

Suggested textbooks Fisica Generale. Meccanica – Termodinamica P. Zotto, S. Lo Russo, P. Sartori I edizione Edizioni La Dotta, Casalecchio di Reno (Bologna), 2016 ISBN 978-88-98648-37-5 Fisica Generale: Meccanica e Termodinamica S. Focardi, I. Massa, A. Uguzzoni e M. Villa II edizione Casa Editrice Ambrosiana (CEA), Milano, 2014 ISBN 978-8808-18215-9 Elementi di Fisica – Meccanica - Termodinamica P. Mazzoldi, M. Nigro e C. Voci II edizione Edizioni Scientifiche ed Universitarie (EdiSES), Napoli, 2008 ISBN: 9788879594189 FISICA 1 Meccanica - Acustica - Termodinamica R. Resnick, D. Halliday, K. S. Krane V edizione Casa Editrice Ambrosiana (CEA), Milano, 2003 ISBN 978-8808-08611-2 Note on textbook choice The textbooks are obviously alternative, although in part complementary. The students must make the choice based on personal preferences and previous preparation: the Resnick is less formal and with a ”tutorial" style, with many exercises and examples; the Focardi and the Zotto are most formally accurate, with some examples and a few or nothing exercises; the Mazzoldi, while presenting examples and exercises, is rather synthetic though preserving a formal exactness.

## Teaching methods

The teaching methodology will be based primarily on frontal lecturing, with help of audio-visual multimedia instruments. The slides used to support lessons will be uploaded weekly on the Elly platform (Department of Mathematical, Physical and Computer Sciences: http://elly.smfi.unipr.it/2017/course/view.php?id=59). To download slides, you need to enrol in the online course.

The second part of the lesson will normally be devoted to the solution of problems and exercises, under the supervision of the teacher. A selection of exercises and problems for each topic will be uploaded weekly on the Elly platform.

The teaching methodology will be based primarily on frontal lecturing, with help of audio-visual multimedia instruments. The slides used to support lessons will be uploaded weekly on the Elly platform. To download slides, you need to enrol in the online course. The second part of the lesson will normally be devoted to the solution of problems and exercises, under the supervision of the teacher. A selection of exercises and problems for each topics will be uploaded weekly on the Elly platform.

## Assessment methods and criteria

Evaluation methods:

The assessment of the acquisition of learning outcomes will take place through mid-term exams in written form and a final exam in oral and (if necessary) written form. A provisional grade will be proposed to the students if the comprehensive grade of the mid-term exams is above a specific threshold (average grade equal to or higher than 18/30). In order to sustain the oral exam, which will aim to assign the final grade, students must enrol for it (registration to the oral exam on the ESSE3 web platform). The exemption from the written test examination and the assigned provisional grade will retain their validity for all the exams of the 2018/19 academic year (from June 2019 to February 2020).

If a student wishing to participate in the medium-term exams is unable to sustain one of them for demonstrable reasons (illness, work, or other impediments), he has the possibility to recover the lost exam during the oral exam, provided that: (1) he forewarned the teacher of the impossibility to participate in one of the medium-term examinations; (2) he has obtained an average evaluation of the remaining medium-term exams equal to or higher than 18/30.

The final exam, in written and oral form, is mandatory for the students having an insufficient grade of mid-term exams or do not giving the intermediate exams. In such a case, the students have to register to the written exam on the ESSE3 web platform and they will be considered eligible for the oral exam if they reach an assessment equal to or greater than 18/30.

During each of the written mid-term exams, the student will be asked to:

- demonstrate the knowledge and understanding of specific course topics, through open questions (typically 4-5), which will require the use of the technical correct jargon of Physics and synthesis skills (total weight 15 points);

- demonstrate the ability to apply knowledge and understanding by solving some problems (typically 2-3) related to specific course topics (total weight 15 points).

The written mid-term exams will be evaluated in 30-point scale. Each written exam will last 2.5 hours and will have to be done without the help of notes or books. The results of written exams will be notified by posting them on the ESSE3 web platform.

The written final exam will have a similar structure but problems and questions will cover all the topics of the course program and will last 3 hours.

During the oral exam, the student will be asked to:

- demonstrate the development of an autonomous judgment based on the knowledge and understanding of the fundamental laws of classical mechanics and of thermodynamics, by discussing the carried out written exams (final or mid-term) and deepening of theoretical arguments, drawing connections between the various parts and with basic concepts acquired in other courses;

- be able to use the correct technical-specialist language of Physics so that complex concepts can be translate correctly into an understandable language.

The oral exam will be evaluated in 30-point scale. The final grade will result from the arithmetic mean of the grades of written final exam (or the comprehensive grade of the mid-term written exams) and oral exam.

Evaluation methods:

The assessment of the acquisition of learning outcomes will take place through mid-term exams in written form and a final exam in oral and (if necessary) written form. A provisional grade will be proposed to the students if the comprehensive grade of the mid-term exams is above a specific threshold (average grade equal to or higher than 18/30). In order to sustain the oral exam, which will aim to assign the final grade, students must enrol for it (registration to the oral exam on the ESSE3 web platform). The exemption from the written test examination and the assigned provisional grade will retain their validity for all the exams of the 2017/18 academic year (from June 2018 to February 2019).

The final exam, in written and oral form, is mandatory for the students having an insufficient grade of mid-term exams or do not giving the intermediate exams. In such a case will be considered eligible for the oral exam the students who reach for the written exam an assessment equal to or greater than 18/30.

During each of the written mid-term exams, the student will be asked to:

- demonstrate the knowledge and understanding of specific course topics, through open questions (typically 4-5), which will require the use of the technical correct jargon of Physics and synthesis skills (total weight 15 points);

- demonstrate the ability to apply knowledge and understanding by solving some problems (typically 2-3) related to specific course topics (total weight 15 points).

The written mid-term exams will be evaluated in 30-point scale. Each written exam will last 2.5 hours and will have to be done without the help of notes or books. The results of written exams will be notified by posting them on the ESSE3 web platform.

The written final exam will have a similar structure but problems and questions will cover all the topics of the course program.

During the oral exam, the student will be asked to:

- demonstrate the development of an autonomous judgment based on the knowledge and understanding of the fundamental laws of classical mechanics and of thermodynamics, by discussing the carried out written exams (final or mid-term) and deepening of theoretical arguments, drawing connections between the various parts and with basic concepts acquired in other courses;

- be able to use the correct technical-specialist language of Physics so that complex concepts can be translate correctly into an understandable language.

The oral exam will be evaluated in 30-point scale. The final grade will result from the arithmetic mean of the grades of written final exam (or written mid-term exams) and oral exam.

## Other informations

Office hours: Wednesday, 12.30-13.30 or upon appointment

Office hours: Wednesday, 10.30-11.30 or upon appointment