Clinical and biochemical analyses
Learning outcomes of the course unit
This course aims to provide the informations and the scientific underground to approach correctly the main topics in Clinical Biochemistry by students of pharmaceutical sciences.
This knowledge is needed especially by a professional like the chemist which is at the connection between patients and medical structures also to orientate between many specific diagnostic devices and tools for specimen’s collection, treatment and managing commonly available in the chemist shop.
There are no obligatory prerequisites, but Clinical Biochemistry is an interdisciplinary science and needs the basic knowledge in Biology, Anatomy, Physiology, Chemistry and Biochemistry
Course contents summary
Pre-analytical, analytical and post-analytical variability. Types of biological samples and optimal procedures to collect them. Variables affecting laboratory data
The concept of normal values in biology and the risk functions (normal values stated by statistical calculations or by biological observations; desirable values and risk function; decisional values for diagnostic or therapeutic purpose).
Interpretation of the complete urinalysis test.
Interpretation of enzymatic and iso-enzymatic tests like auxiliary diagnostic tool in some specific organ disease.
Laboratory test modifications by diseases affecting purine metabolism.
Laboratory test modifications by diseases affecting the hydro-electrolyte balance.
Interpreting the variations of acid-base parameters and possible pathological conditions.
Interpretation of the modifications of plasma protein profile.
Part 1. General Clinical Chemistry.
Biological specimens consideration: instruction for optimal collection, treatment and conservation (avoiding pre-analytical variation).
Part 2. Analysis of biological samples; analytical techniques and instrumentations.
The main analytical techniques and instrumentations to evaluate the molecules of interest in Clinical Chemistry. Analytical and post-analytical variability affecting the laboratory data. Clinical laboratory quality assurance. Kits for diagnostic tests.
Part 3. Current waived test.
Point of care testing (POCT): use and application. Criteria for test waiving. Quality control in POCT. Implementation and monitoring of POCT. Specimen and its treatment in POCT. Places of POCT utilization. Auto-monitoring of some biochemical parameters.
Part 4. Application of POCT
Control of glycemia; Diabetes and patient auto-monitoring. Lipid metabolism diseases; POCT for blood triglycerides, cholesterol and lipoprotein analysis; auto-monitoring and cardiovascular risk.
Part 5. Outline of Clinical Biochemistry
Markers of function or damage of some organs and systems. Index of cytolysis, clinical enzymology. Main cardiac, hepatic, renal and tumor markers. Toxicology, therapeutic drug monitoring; sport doping and abuse substances control
- Kellerman G. Valori anormali di laboratorio. Mc Graw Hill
- Tietz Textbook of Clinical Chemistry and Molecular Diagnostics. Elsevier Saunders, St.Louis (Missouri)-USA.
Assessment methods and criteria
The final oral examination is about the topics of the course; the student needs to demonstrate to have understood and to be able to manage the essential meanings of every section of the program.