PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF VISUAL FUNCTION AND BINOCULAR VISION
Learning outcomes of the course unit
To understand the principle of diseases affecting different levels of the visual system: different effects imply different diagnostic strateg.
To gain fundamental insight about binocular vision, stereopsis, and their impairment.
Pathophysiology of binocular vision.
To develop an elementary knowledge on the principles underlying the function of ophthalmic instruments.
Course contents summary
Levels of visual function: from retinal images to perception
the optics of the eye and the retinal image
the optic nerve head
the visual pathway
visual areas in the cortex
Clinical electrophysiology of vision
retinal layers and biopotentials
ganzfeld flash ERG
focal and multifocal ERG
pattern ERG (PERG)
visual cortex and biopotentials
visual evoked cortical potentials (VECP, VEP, VER)
Binocular interaction: corresponding retinal points and areas
horopter, Panum's area
simultaneous perception and stereopsis
3D perception: monocular and binocular factors
development of binocular vision and related problems
diplopia and confusion
suppression, anomalous retinal correspondence (ARC)
neurophysiological basis of amblyopia
Visual angle and sizing of visual stimuli
luminance and contrast in ophthalmic instruments
Measurement of the optical properties of the cornea and of the eye
Ultrasounds in ophthalmology
Lasers in ophthalmolgy
Measurement of the axial length of ocular structures: ultrasonic and optical methods
Measurement of the intraocular pressure
Imaging of the retina
Imaging of the optic nerve head
Yanoff-Duker. Ophthalmology. Mosby 2004
Tasman, Jaeger, eds. Duane's Ophthalmology. LWW 2006.
The topics contained in the Programmes of the Modules will be illustrated
and discussed during classroom lectures.
In specific cases, lectures will be integrated by active teaching through
individual and group exercises and practical activities.
Assessment methods and criteria
The achievement of the objectives will be
established during oral examination. Through questions on the topics covered in the course will assess the
knowledge and understanding of the content by the student.