DISEASES OF THE VISUAL APPARATUS
Learning outcomes of the course unit
The course aims to enable the student to learn and understand through lectures and interactive practices, the full knowledge of the basic mechanisms of the extrinsic ocular motility, the anatomical and physiological bases of binocular vision, the principles of ocular refraction and visual acuity assessment. It also provides the basic elements for the interpretation of these methods. in order to allow the student the ability to use the knowledge and understanding gained in executing these methods in an autonomous way.
The student at the end of the course, using the knowledge of anatomy, physiology, pathology and psychology previously acquired must demonstrate knowledge and understanding about the basic mechanisms of the extrinsic ocular motility, the anatomical and physiological bases of binocular vision, principles determination of refractive defects, their correction, and the measurement of visual acuity.
The student also applying the knowledge and understanding acquired, shall be able, even collaborating with other professionals, to be able to conduct assessments of refraction and visual acuity in autonomy.
Course contents summary
Prof. Arturo Carta (ocular motility and binocular vision)
THE EYE: ITS SURFACES, AXES, MOVEMENTS AROUND THE SAME. THE LOCOMOTOR APPARATUS: THE ORBIT, OCULOMOTOR MUSCLES, SUPPORT APPARATUS, SUPRANUCLEAR CENTRES OF OCULOMOTRICITY, OCULOMOTOR NERVES. THE ACTIONS OF THE OCULAR MUSCLES. AGONIST AND ANTAGONIST MUSCLES. THE LAWS OF OCULAR MOTILITY: SHERRINGTON’S LAW OF RECIPROCAL INNERVATION, HERING’S LAW OF EQUAL INNERVATION. OCULAR MOVEMENTS: DUCTIONS, VERSONS (VOLUNTARY, STATIC, STATIC-KINETIC, OPTICAL-KINETIC) VERGENCES. MONOCULAR (TONIC, ACCOMODATIVE, PROXIMAL) AND BINOCULAR (FUSIONAL) VERGENCES. DYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF OCULAR MOVEMENTS (SACCADIC MOVEMENTS, PURSUIT MOVEMENTS). OCULAR FIXATION. SUPRANUCLEAR CONTROL OF EXTRINSIC OCULAR MOTILITY. ANATOMICAL BASES OF BINOCULAR VISION: MONOCULAR AND BINOCULAR VISUAL FIELD. OPTICAL PATHWAYS AND CHIASMATIC DECUSSATION. VISUAL CORTEX. PHYSIOLOGICAL BASES OF BINOCULAR VISION: PHOTORECEPTOR LOCAL SIGN. OCULOCENTRIC (OR RELATIVE) AND ECOCENTRIC (OR ABSOLUTE) LOCALISATION . THE CONCEPT OF CORRESPONDING RETINAL POINTS
Prof. Claudio Macaluso (physiological optics)
Principles of ocular refraction, looking into subjective as well as objective methods, such as keratometry, topography, tomographic systems, aberrometry.
Methods for measuring visual acuity both subjectively and objectively; measurement and meaning of contrast sensitivity.
- Burian-von Noorden: Binocular Vision and ocular motility.
Azzolini C, et al: "Clinica dell'apparato visivo-Seconda Edizione"
- GP Paliaga: I vizi di refrazione. Minerva Medica 1995
- GP Paliaga: L'esame del visus. Minerva Medica 1991
- Zeri, Rossetti, Fossetti, Calossi: Ottica visuale. SEU Società Editrice Universo, 2012
During the lectures will be illustrated and discussed the content of the course.
The course will be supported by tutorials, in order to provide the opportunity for each student to be able to measure in various situations with the practical use of the main diagnostic tools discussed in a theoretical way during lectures.
Assessment methods and criteria
Prof. Arturo Carta
Prof. Claudio Macaluso
The assessment of the achievement of the objectives set by the course includes a written examination.
Through questions regarding the course content, it will be determined if the student has achieved the goal of knowledge and understanding of the content. Through questions concerning the principles of operation and interpretation of the techniques discussed in the course, will be determined whether the student has achieved the goal of applying the acquired knowledge.
To pass the exam, the student must correctly answer at least 60% of the questions. The final grade is out of thirty, in proportion to the number of correct answers. And 'provided that the student can improve your score in the written application through an oral, that may change the rating of no more than 3 points.