LABORATORY FOR GENERAL AND INORGANIC CHEMISTRY
Learning outcomes of the course unit
Knowledge and understanding:At the end of the course the student is expected to know the basic concepts necessary for the study of Chemistry. In particular, the student will understand the two fundamental aspects of the basic chemistry: the numerical / stoichiometric aspect (fundamental calculations, correct use of formulas) and the practical / experimental aspect (active participation) laboratory exercises, use of the basic equipment of the chemical laboratory). The student will have basic knowledge of the chemical field: main aspects of chemical terminology, nomenclature, conventions and units of measurement; will have basic knowledge of chemical reactions and their main characteristics; will have basic knowledge of the characteristic properties of the elements and their compounds, including the relationships between the groups and the periods in the Periodic Table. Application of knowledge, and acquisition of skills:At the end of the lessons, the student will be able to perform autonomously stoichiometric problems related to mass balancing, to the recognition of the limiting reagent, will be able to solve redox equations, determine and convert concentrations, calculate the pH of solutions under different conditions and will determine the solubility of simple compounds. At the end of the laboratory part, the student will be able to work safely in the laboratory; will be able to recognize the indications of risk and protection and will be able to use individual and group protection devices. He will be able to recognize glassware and basic instrumentation of a chemical laboratory and will be able to use it correctly. The student will acquire sufficient manual skills to carry out basic chemistry laboratory operations prior to the most advanced laboratories. The student will be able to safely use chemicals, including their proper disposal; will be able to perform synthesis and characterization of simple compounds using standard procedures, safe laboratory practices and standard laboratory instrumentation; will be able to gather scientific data through laboratory observations and measurements, to elaborate and interpret them.Making Judgments: the student will be able to analyze a chemical problem and will be able to recognize the most suitable method for solving. The student will be able to collect and critically evaluate, present and discuss the experimental results acquired in collaborative activities; will be able to plan and conduct an experiment, also planning the times and the modalities; will be able to handle substances in safe conditions, to classify waste products, processing residues and dispose of them properly; will be able to correlate the data and results acquired experimentally with theoretical models.Communication skills: The student will know how to communicate with the appropriate scientific technical language and with the formalisms proper of chemistry. Learning skills: the student will be able to act in a group context and will be able to understand more advanced chemical concepts.
Course contents summary
The first lectures will deal with the introduction on the chemical nomenclature, the chemical reactions, and the principal methods for stoichiometric calculations.
The lectures of the second part of the semester will deal with numerical exercises on: gaseous systems, chemical equilibrium, theories of acids and bases and solubility.
Lectures will be delivered on the description of the laboratory activities and on the safety procedures in the laboratory. These lectures will be followed, in the second part of the semester, by 6 practical activities in the chemical laboratory plus 1 as a verification.
Stoichiometry. Molecular and atomic mass, mole, chemical equations and balancing methods. Empirical formula, purity, limiting reagent and yield. Ideal and real gases laws and their applications. Concentrations, units and colligative properties. Thermochemical equations and spontaneity of a reaction. Chemical equilibrium in gas phase. Equilibrium constants and Le Chatelier principle. Equilibria in solution: acid-base equilibria, hydrolysis, buffers, titrations, solubility of salts. Galvanic and electrolitic cells. Activation energy, order of a reaction. Laboratory activities: 1. Synthesis of zinc iodide from elements 2. Composition of the solutions and their preparation. 3. Reactivity of inorganic compounds. 4. Titration curves of strong acid / strong baseand weak acid / weak base 5. Qualitative analysis for cations (group 1). 6. Qualitative analysis for cations (group 2).
Stechiometria e laboratorio di chimica generale - Seconda edizione. Ed Pearson
P. Michelin Lausarot, G.A. Vaglio - Stechiometria per la Chimica Generale - Ed. Piccin
Frontal teaching activities: the teacher explains the theoretical part of the course with the help of slide projection in which the methodologies will be discussed to deal with stoichiometry exercises concerning the topics reported in the course program. During the course there will be constant links with the topics held in the course of General and Inorganic Chemistry. Moreover, exercises on the blackboard partly conducted by the teacher and partly by the students will be held. The course also includes a series of practices in chemical laboratories, at compulsory attendance. The practices will be mainly of an individual nature, and are intended to provide students with both the knowledge on the main basic techniques that the ability to independently find solutions to practical problems, or to design the experiments themselves. Students will perfect their ability to describe activities through the writing of a laboratory notebook. Finally, a tutoring activity will be planned in the form of classroom meetings with the teacher who will answer questions from the students related to the course, in order to allow the students, in a guided way, to face difficulties. Part of the teaching material is available on the Elly portal.
Assessment methods and criteria
The exam will be a final exam, together with the course of General and Inorganic Chemistry
It consists of a written test, composed of two sections as follows, and a colloquium.
-11 open questions on the topics of the course of General and Inorganic Chemistry
-3 excercises on the topics of the course of Laboratory of General and Inorganic Chemistry
The grade of the test will be weighted as 3/5 the grade of the first section, and 2/5 the grade of the second section. The minimum grade has to be obtained however for both sections individually to pass the test. In case of fail of the test, the student will be asked to retake the test and the colloquium.
The written test will be followed by an oral exam (colloquium) on the topics of both the courses of General and Inorganic Chemistry and Laboratory. In case of fail of the colloquium, the student will be asked to retake the test and the colloquium.
The final grade will be an average of the grades of the test and of the colloquium.
As regards the topics of the Laboratory of General and Inorganic Chemistry, the student will be asked to demonstrate to have acquired:
- fundamental concepts
- skills in presenting the concepts using an adequate approach and consistent with this field of study
- capacity to connect the different concepts, demonstrating the ability to find individually the solutions to problems
- capacity to use textbooks, handouts and data on websites, and the capacity to critically evaluate this material
- knowledge in the fundamental techniques in the chemical laboratory
- capacity to describe in a written form (reports) their lab activities, and to integrate it with the theoretical concepts.The teacher will evaluate during the laboratory exercises the ability of the student to work safely and to follow the procedures that will be given. The teacher will evaluate the ability to draw up reports on the activity carried out through the evaluation of the laboratory notebook, and the dexterity, autonomy and ability to use the laboratory instrumentation and glassware through a final laboratory practise. The overall assessment of the laboratory activity (notebook + final assessment exercise) will lead to an eligibility assessment. The written test of stoichiometry involves the resolution of exercises concerning the calculation and conversion of concentrations, mass balancing exercises, redox equations and calculation of the pH of solutions under various conditions. The student must demonstrate that he / she is able to solve each of the indicated sections sufficiently. Exercises proposed during past exams, with the result of the problems, are made available on Elly to allow students to evaluate their own preparation.
The teacher is available upon request for discussions and clarifications about specific topics.