LEARNING OUTCOMES OF THE COURSE UNIT
The general objective of the course is to provide the students the bases to learn and understand:
- the fundamental concepts of chemistry to better understand the properties of matter, starting from the structure of atoms and molecules;
- useful basis for understanding, at a molecular level, the complex chemical processes inside the cell and in the metabolic pathways.
In particular, the aim is to bring the students into the knowledge and understanding of:
- the principles that regulate the compounds reactivity;
- bonds breaking or formation and the related energy exchange;
- the electron transfer;
- the kinetics of chemical reactions and the dynamic chemical equilibrium;
- the structure and properties of inorganic and organic compounds as well as of biological macromolecules;
- the properties of solutions and the equilibria in aqueous solutions;
- the properties of acids, bases, salts and buffers.
The chemistry of organic compounds and of biological macromolecules is described in a proper way to better understand the physiological and biochemical processes.
COURSE CONTENTS SUMMARY
General and Inorganic Chemistry
Bettelheim, Brown, Campbell, Farrel
Chimica e Propedeutica Biochimica
Chimica di base per le scienze della vita
Antonio Delfino Editore
(2 volumi: Chimica generale e Chimica organica)
A. Albertini, M. Avitabile, U. Benatti, V. Boido, F. Guerrieri, G. Liut, L. Masotti, A. Spisni
Harold Hart, Leslie E. Craine, David. J. Hart
Lectures notes are provided by the teacher
ASSESSMENT METHODS AND CRITERIA
Written examination followed by oral test.
Metodo di Insegnamento: Frontal lectures.
Metodo di Valutazione: Written examination followed by oral test.
GENERAL AND INORGANIC CHEMISTRY
Introduction and atomic structure
Properties of matter. Elements and compounds. Sub-atomic particles. Atomic number, mass number, isotopes. Atomic and molecular weight, gram atom, gram molecule. Atomic structure; atomic orbitals and quantum numbers. Electronic configuration of the elements.
Periodic trends in the chemical properties of the elements
Periodic table. Periodic properties of the elements: atomic size, ionization energy, electron affinity, electronegativity. Electronic structure and chemical properties.
Ionic bond; covalent bond (pure, polar, dative) and molecular orbitals. Intermolecular bonding: dipole-dipole interactions, hydrogen bonding, van der Waals forces.
Inorganic chemical compounds
Hydrurs, binary acids, oxides and anhydrides, peroxides, hydroxides, acids, neutral and acidic salts: formation reactions, reaction balancing, nomenclature, structural formulas.
Rates of chemical reactions, rate laws. The factors that affect chemical reaction rate: chemical nature of the reactants, concentration of the reactants (order of a reaction), temperature and catalysts. Molecular collision theory and transition state theory.
Chemical equilibrium is a dynamic process. The general expression of the equilibrium constant. Factors that affect the chemical equilibrium: variations of concentration, volume, pressure, temperature. Le Chatelier’s principle.
First principle of thermodynamics, the concept of enthalpy. Second principle of thermodynamics, the concept of entropy. Third law of thermodynamics. Free energy and spontaneity of chemical reactions; free energy and equilibrium constant.
Concentrations units: percent fraction w/w and w/v, molarity, molality, normality.
Colligative properties of solutions: boiling point elevation, freezing point depression; origin and significance of the osmotic pressure, van’t Hoff factor and osmolarity.
Acids and bases: Arrhenius theory, Bronsted and Lowry theory, Lewis theory. Acid-base equilibria. Strong acids and bases, weak acids and bases.
Water ionization. Concept of pH. Calculating the pH of acid and base (strong and weak) solutions. Hydrolysis of salts in water. Buffer solutions: properties and pH calculation.
Stoichiometric calculations. Balancing chemical equations.
Oxidation state and oxidation number; balancing ox-red reactions.
Chemistry exercises: concentrations of solutions, pH calculation of aqueous solutions containing different compounds, colligative properties.
Hybrid orbitals of carbon. Molecular and structural formulas. Types of reaction: substitution, addition, elimination. Electrophiles and nucleophiles reagents. Functional groups.
Hydrocarbons classification. Alkanes: nomenclature, physical properties and characteristic reactions. Structural isomerism. Cycloalkanes: structure and nomenclature. Alkenes and alkynes: nomenclature, physical properties and characteristic reactions.
Benzene: concept of aromaticity and properties. Benzene reactivity and most important substitution reactions. Substituents effect on reactivity and orientation.
Alcohols and phenols
Structure, classification and nomenclature. Physical and chemical properties; the acid-base behaviour. Characteristic reactions. Formation of ethers.
Aldehydes and ketones
Structure and nomenclature. Physical properties. Characteristic reactions and their mechanism: addition of water, alcohols, amine; aldol condensation.
Carboxylic acids and related carbonyl derivatives
Carboxylic acids: structure and nomenclature. Physical properties and acidity of carboxylic acids as a function of substituents. Characteristic reactions and mechanism of the preparation of esters.
OBJECTIVES OF THE COURSE
The student will have to acquire the capability to connect the chemical nomenclature to the corresponding formula and to describe the structure and function of macromolecules such as carbohydrate, proteins, lipids and nucleic acids present in the cell. He must recognize the functional groups responsible for the reactivity of the molecules. He must acquire an overview of the mechanisms that govern the transformation of the molecules and its correlation with the production and consumption of energy. He must understand and appreciate the connections between chemistry and biology.
The student must acquire the ability to select and apply the gained knowledge not only in theory but also while carrying out training activities.
The prerequisites consist of the chemical knowledges needed to pass the entrance test to Study in Medicine and Surgery.
COURSE CONTENTS SUMMARY
In the first part, initially, an overview of the topics that will be discussed during the course will be presented and reasons which justify the time sequence with which they are presented will be explained. Subsequently the principles that govern the flow of energy associated with each chemical reaction and their meaning from a biological point of view will be discussed.
In the second part we will look at topics that concern a) the structure of the atom and its properties by introducing a series of mathematical formalism and useful graphs to represent atoms and molecules and to describe chemical reactions; b) the origin of the three-dimensional structure and reactivity of the molecules; c) The principles of chemical kinetics; d) the reactions of inorganic compounds with particular attention to acid-base reactions.
In Part three, it will be dealt with the chemical and structural properties of organic compounds.
In Part Fourth, finally, it will be treated the structural and functional characteristics of the main macromolecules present in the cells (carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and nucleic acids).
STRUCTURAL CHEMISTRY, 2 credits
The atomic structure: nucleus and electrons:. Electronic configuration: electronegativity. Covalent bond types on the basis of electronegativity of the atoms involved. Molecules: reactivity and molecular chemical bonding. Spatial distribution of electrons and shape of molecules.
GENERAL AND INORGANIC CHEMISTRY, 2 credits
Acidic and basic oxides. Acid/basic compounds theories. Salts. Fundamentals of chemical kinetics, meaning of activation energy. Chemical equilibrium: acidic and basic solutions. Fundamentals of thermochemistry and thermodynamics. Chemical reactions and energy exchanges. Electrochemistry.
ORGANIC CHEMISTRY, 2CFU
1) Organic Chemistry: structure and chemical bond in organic molecules. Reactions types: addition, elimination, substitution. Reactions mechanisms: radicalic and polar. Reagents types: nucleophiles, electrophiles and radicals. Functional groups: nomenclature, physical properties and chemical reactivity of biological interest: aliphatic, olefinic and aromatic hydrocarbons. Functional groups: alcohols, phenols, thiols, carbonylic compounds: aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and derivatives. Amines.
PROPAEDEUTIC BIOCHEMISTRY, 1 credit
2) Chemistry of the biological systems molecules: Carbohydrates: monosaccharides, oligosaccharides and polysaccharides. Lipids: fatty acids, lipids, complex lipids and steroids. Proteins: aminoacids and peptide bond. Peptides. Nucleic Acids: purines, pirimidines, nucleotides and nucleosides, the phosphodiesteric bond. DNA and RNA structures and function.
K.J. Denniston, J.J.Topping and R.L. Caret
H. Hart, L.E. Craine, D.J. Hart, C.M. Hadad
6th Edition Zanichelli
Introduction to General, Organic and Biochemistry
F. A. Bettelheim, W.H. Brown, M.K. Campbell., S.O. Farrell
9th Engl. Ed.
ASSESSMENT METHODS AND CRITERIA
The assessment of the achievement of the objectives set by the Course includes a written test followed and no oral exam.
Overall, the test is intended to certify whether the student has achieved a good knowledge and understanding of the whole chemical principles that underlie life processes and if he is able to select and apply them to solve simple problems.
As required by law and University Teaching Regulations, it is not possible to carry out the examination in parts and to acquire credits to one or more parts of the program.
Board of Examiners: Spisni Alberto Franzoni Lorella, Casali Emanuela
Substitute: Pertinhez Thelma, Troglio Maria Giovanna, Elena Ferrari
The course will be conducted on the basis of lectures during which after having exposed some general concepts will go on to describe their first applications in chemical systems model and then as part of the life processes of a cell.
The classes will be divided into three parts. A brief introduction to resume the arguments put forward in the previous lesson (10 '), a space for questions about the arguments (10') and 30 'to present new arguments. Due to the limited time available, during the Course, priority will be given to a thorough discussion of the most conceptual part of the program, the remaining part will be left to the student's individual study activity using the recommended text books.